Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 127–137 | Cite as

Defense mechanisms in the sapwood of living trees against microbial infection

  • Toshihiro Yamada
Invited Review


When pathogenic microorganisms invade living sapwood of woody plants, a series of defense responses occurs at the lesion margin. Putative active defense mechanisms include constitutive and induced inhibitory compounds, cell wall alterations, and occlusion of xylem elements. Active defenses play an important role in the sapwood, while constitutive and induced microenvironmental conditions in the wood might also constrain pathogen development. It is necessary to develop a unified understanding, in which these factors could act synergistically and provide effective defense barriers.

Key words

active defense microenvironment reaction zone wood discoloration and decay 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Forestry Society and Springer 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Forest Botany, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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