Women’s upward mobility in manufacturing organizations in Istanbul: A glass ceiling initiative?
This study explores the differences in the distribution of females and males in non-management, management, and top management positions in Istanbul manufacturing organizations. Multiple industries were sampled. Data were collected by random sampling from 80 organizations. Results showed that the mean numbers of women were significantly lower than the mean numbers of men at each hierarchical level. There was a drop in the proportion of women as the level in the organizational hierarchy increased. Textile industry employed the largest number of women among the industries explored. Possible reasons for not having more women at top management positions are discussed.
KeywordsTextile Industry Woman Manager Personnel Manager Upward Mobility Female Manager
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