Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 185–191 | Cite as

Effects of competitive and cooperative interaction among neighboring trees on tree growth in a naturally regenerated even-agedLarix sibirica stand in considering height stratification

Original Articles


This study attempted to explain the variation in growth of individual trees in a naturally regenerated, even-agedLarix sibirica stand using indices that represented the competitive and cooperative interactions among neighboring trees. These interaction indices and DBH were used in stepwise multiple regression procedures to model the growth of individual trees. However, when the data from all trees were used, DBH was the only factor accepted in the growth model. Since DBH can be influenced by the cumulative effect of past interaction and other environmental factors, we stratified the stand into three height strata and repeated the stepwise procedure for each stratum to remove the cumulative effect represented by DBH. Several competition and/or cooperation indices were accepted in growth models of the lower, middle and upper strata. In each stratum, the residual mean square of the growth model was smaller than that of all strata. These facts suggested that height stratification was generally successful in reducing the cumulative effect of past interaction and other factors. The cooperation indices that suggested protection from wind stress by neighboring trees was a significant variable in the growth models of all three strata. This demonstrated that cooperative interaction should be considered in the explanation of variation in tree growth in dry and windy climates such as the present study region.

Key words

competitive interaction cooperative interaction growth of individual tree height stratification Larix sibirica 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Ashby, W.C., Kolar, C.A., Hendricks, T.R., and Phares, R.E. (1979) Effects of shaking and shading on growth of three hardwood species. Forest Sci. 25: 212–216.Google Scholar
  2. Bella, I.E. (1971) A new competition model for individual trees. Forest Sci. 17: 364–372.Google Scholar
  3. Biging, G.S. and Dobbertin, M. (1992) A comparison of distance-dependent competition measures for height and basal area growth of individual conifer trees. Forest Sci. 38: 695–720.Google Scholar
  4. Biging, G.S. and Dobbertin, M. (1995) Evaluation of competition indices in individual tree growth models. Forest Sci. 41: 360–377.Google Scholar
  5. Brand, D.G. and Magnussen, S. (1998) Asymmetric, two-sided competition in even-aged monocultures of red pine. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 901–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunner, A. and Nigh, G. (2000) Light absorption and bole volume growth of individual Douglas-fir. Tree Physiol. 20: 323–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, P.J. and Evans, F.C. (1954) Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in population. Ecology 35: 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniels, R.F. (1976) Simple competition indices and their correlation with annual loblolly pine tree growth. Forest Sci. 22: 454–456.Google Scholar
  9. Daniels, R.F., Burkhart, H.E., and Clason, T.R. (1986) A comparison of competition measures for predicting growth of loblolly pine trees. Can. J. For. Res. 16: 1230–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deluis, D., Ravebtos, J., Cortina, J. Moro, M.J., and Bellot, J. (1998) Assessing components of a competition index to predict growth in an even-agedPinus nigra stand. New Forest 15: 223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hozumi, K., Koyama, H., and Kira, T. (1955) Intraspecific competition among higher plants (V) A preliminary account on the interaction between adjacent individuals. J. Inst. Polytech. Osaka City Univ. D6: 121–130.Google Scholar
  12. Inoue, A., Mizoue, N., Yoshida, S., and Imada, M. (1998) A new method for analyzing forest stratification based on discriminant criteria. J. For. Plann. 4: 35–38.Google Scholar
  13. Larson, P.R. (1965) Stem form of young larix as influenced by wind and pruning. Forest Sci. 11: 412–424.Google Scholar
  14. Lorimer, C.G. (1983) Tests of age-independent competition indices for individual trees in natural hardwood stands. For. Ecol. Manage. 6: 343–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mithen, R., Harper, J.H., and Weiner, J. (1984) Growth and mortality of individual plants as a function of “available area”. Oecologia 62: 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Muramoto, Y., Ito, S., and Nogami, K. (1998) Edge tree decline of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse Endlicher) mature stands after typhoon damages. Jpn. J. For. Environ. 40: 27–32.Google Scholar
  17. Neter, J., Kutner, M.H., Nachtsheim, C.J., and Wasserman, W. (1996) Applied linear statistical models, 4th ed. 1408pp, Irwin, Inc., Chicago.Google Scholar
  18. Schwinning, S. and Weiner, J. (1998) Mechanisms determining the degree of size asymmetry in competition among plants. Oecologia 113: 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seiwa, K. and Kikuzawa, K. (1987) Changes of spatial dispersions in trees with same size during the development of anAbies sachalinensis stand. J. Jpn. For. Soc. 69: 465–471. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Spurr, S.H. (1962) A measure of point density. Forest Sci. 8: 85–96.Google Scholar
  21. Tatsuhara, S. (1992) An integrated description of stand growth and tree growth in pure even-aged closed stands. J. Jpn. For. Soc. 74: 28–36.Google Scholar
  22. Taylor, P.J., Nuberg, I.K., and Hatton, T.J. (2001) Enhanced transpiration in response to wind effects at the edge of a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation. Tree Physiol. 21: 403–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Tome, M. and Burkhart, H.E. (1989) Distance-dependent competition measures for predicting growth of individual trees. Forest Sci. 35: 816–831.Google Scholar
  24. Watson, A. (2000) Wind-induced forces in the near-surface lateral roots of radiata pine. For. Ecol. Manage. 135: 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Weiner, J. and Solbrig, O.T. (1984) The meaning and measurement of size hierarchies in plant populations. Oecologia 61: 334–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zenner, E.K. and Hibbs, D.E. (2000) A new method for modeling the heterogeneity of forest structure. For. Ecol. Manage. 129: 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Forest Society and Springer 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasushi Mitsuda
    • 1
  • Satoshi Ito
    • 2
  • Katsuhiko Takata
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureMiyazaki UniversityMiyazakiJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Wood TechnologyAkita Prefectural UniversityAkitaJapan

Personalised recommendations