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Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 35–40 | Cite as

Development of a method for forest cafeteria tests for evaluating chemical deterrents against bark stripping by sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis)

  • Ken Orihashi
  • Yosuke Yasui
  • Yasuo Kojima
  • Minoru Terazawa
  • Shigehiro Kamoda
  • Hisatomi Kasahara
  • Yasuo Takahashi
Original Articles

Abstract

Damage caused by sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) is a serious problem in commercial and environmental (non-harvested) forests in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Cafeteria tests in forests may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of chemical deterrents against bark stripping by deer. To develop a method for forest cafeteria tests in the continuous snow cover period, two experiments were carried out. In the experiments, logs were produced from tree trunks, and used as carriers of chemical deterrents. Carriers were installed in forests and fed to deer. The first experiment was to find suitable sites and installation methods for carriers. Criteria for the local suitability and the installation methods were as follows: a) Sites where deer are active should be selected; b) Carriers should be installed along actively used deer trails; c) Installation sites of carriers should be changed in response to deer movement; d) Carriers should be produced from tree species that deer naturally prefer; and e) Each carrier should be partially buried in the snow. The second experiment evaluated the feasibility of a cafeteria test method based on the results of the first experiment. The method was used for 13 sets of the cafeteria test, in which the deterrent effectiveness of 5 chemicals (wood tar, rosin, wood vinegar, and 2 pyroligneous liquors) was examined. We obtained results from all the sets. The chemicals tested did not deter bark stripping by deer. Nevertheless, the method used in the present study was practical for the cafeteria tests.

Key words

bark stripping cafeteria test chemical deterrents forest damage sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Forest Society and Springer 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Orihashi
    • 1
  • Yosuke Yasui
    • 1
  • Yasuo Kojima
    • 1
  • Minoru Terazawa
    • 1
  • Shigehiro Kamoda
    • 2
  • Hisatomi Kasahara
    • 2
  • Yasuo Takahashi
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.University Forest in HokkaidoThe University of TokyoFuranoJapan

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