Advertisement

Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 231–235 | Cite as

Density effects on the conifer mortality in declining spruce-fir forest in northern Japan: Implication of bark beetle attack to, cause spruce decline

  • Kenichi Ozaki
  • Kenji Fukuyama
  • Kaoru Maetô
  • Kensuke Itoh
Original Articles

Abstract

We examined mortality patterns of two conifer species in relation to tree abundance and species composition in a declining spruce-fir forest in Akan National park, Hokkaido, northern Japan. The data taken from eleven 58 m × 58 m square study plots showed that percentage basal area (BA) of dead trees of canopy trees during the last decade was 49% forPicea jezoensis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Carr and 30% forAbies sachalinensis (Fr. Schm.) Masters. InP. jezoensis, percentage basal area (BA) of dead trees was positively related to both BA of its own species and proportion of it to BA of all species, whereas it was not significantly related to both of these variables inA. sachalinensis. Multiple logistic regression with dbh as a confounding factor also indicated that, inP. jezoensis, the proportion of dead stems was positively affected by the stem density of conspecific trees, whereas it was negatively affected by the stem density of the other species in each study plot. However, inA. sachalinensis, the proportion of dead stems was significantly related to neither of these factors. The different mortality pattern between two conifer species suggests that the spruce bark beetle,Ips typographus (L.), which is a serious pest of spruce, may have caused theP. jezoensis decline. Instead of wind-throw or thinning that usually initiate this bark beetle attack, some unknown factors seemed to predispose the trees to insect attack. These unknown factors may also explain the high mortality ofA. sachalinensis in this forest.

Key words

biotic factors boreal forest density dependent mortality forest decline spatial pattern 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Anonymous (1981–1994) Annual statistical report of Obihiro divisional forest office. Obihiro, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1994) Annual report of climatological stations. The Japan Meteorogical Agency, Tokyo, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  3. Bakke, A. (1983) Host tree and bark beetle interaction during a mass outbreak ofIps typographus in Norway. Z. Angew. Entomol. 96: 118–125.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes, J. D., Eamus, D., and Brown, K. A. (1990) The influence of ozone, acid mist and soil nutrient status on Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] II. Photosynthesis, dark respiration and soluble carbohydrates of trees during late autumn. New Phytol. 115: 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruck, R.I. and Robarge, W.P. (1988) Change in forest structure in the boreal montane ecosystem of Mount Mitchell, North Carolina. Eur. J. For. Pathol. 18: 357–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Glenn, M. G., Wagner, W. S., and Webb, S. L. (1991) Mycorrhizal status of mature red spruce (Picea rubens) in mesic and wetland sites of northwestern New Jersey. Can. J. For. Res. 21: 741–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haines, B. L. and Carlson, C. L. (1989) Effects of acidic precipitation on trees.In Acidic precipitation. Vol. 2. Biological and ecological effects. Adriano, D. C. and Johnson, A.H. (eds.), 368pp, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1–27.Google Scholar
  8. Hasegawa, S. and Tsuji, T. (1987) Distribution of wind-thrown area in Oakan Mountain.In Scientific report of Maeda Ippoen Foundation. Vol. 1. 531pp, Akan, Hokkaido, Japan, 201–210. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Iguchi, K., Yamamoto, H., and Furuta, K. (1993) The spread of attack of yezo-spruce by spruce beetles in natural forests after selection cutting. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For. 90: 1–15. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  10. Inouye, M. (1963) Details of bark beetle control in the storm-swept areas in the natural forest of Hokkaido, Japan. Z. Angew. Entomol. 51: 160–164.Google Scholar
  11. Johnson, A.H., Siccama, T.G., Silver, W.L., and Battles, J.J. (1989) Decline of red spruce in high-elevation forests of New York and New England.In Acidic precipitation. Vol. 1. Case studies. Adriano, D.C. and Havas, M. (eds.), 311pp, Springer-Verlag, New York, 85–112.Google Scholar
  12. Klein, R.M. and Perkins, T.D. (1987) Cascades of causes and effects of forest decline. AMBIO 16: 86–93.Google Scholar
  13. Koike, T., Sanada, M., and Ohta, S. (1993) Acid rain. 2. What about the effects of acid rain on plant ecosystem?: Current status of forest ecosystem and research activities. Jpn. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 64: 704–710. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Koizumi, C. (1977) Beetle infestations associated with the cutting operations in the spruce-fir forest in Hokkaido. Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Stn. 297: 1–34. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  15. Krahl-Urban, B., Papke, H.E., Peters, K., and Schimansky, C. (1988) Forest decline: Cause-effect research in the United States of North America and Federal Republic of Germany. 140pp, Assessment group for biology, ecology and energy of the Jülich Nuclear Research Center for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and German Ministry of Research and Technology, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  16. Kurahashi, A., Yamamoto, H., Takahashi, I., Ohsato, S., Kawahara, S., Iguchi, K., and Sato, S. (1992) Health evaluations of naturalPicea jezoensis: A case study in the Tokyo University Forest in Hokkaido. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For. 88: 95–126. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  17. Last, F. T. (1989) Acidic deposition: Case study Scotland.In Acidic precipitation. Vol. 1. Case studies. Adriano, D. C. and Havas, M. (eds.), 311pp, Springer-Verlag, New York, 237–274.Google Scholar
  18. Lenz, R. and Haber, W. (1990) Longterm assessment of spruce vitality in the Fichtelgebirge (West Germany) under ongoing acid deposition. Vegetatio 89: 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matsumoto, Y., Maruyama, Y., and Morikawa, Y. (1992) Some aspects of water relations on largeCryptomeria japonica D. Don trees and climatic changes on the Kanto plains in Japan in relation to forest decline. Jpn. J. For. Environ. 34: 2–13. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  20. Matsuura, Y. (1992) Stemflow and soil acidification. Jpn. J. For. Environ. 34: 20–25. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  21. McLaughlin, S.B., Downing, D.J., Blasing, T.J., Cook, E.R., and Adams, H.S. (1987) An analysis of climate and competition as contributors to decline of red spruce in high elevation Appalachian forests of the Eastern United States. Oecologia 72: 487–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nakayama, M., Furuta, K., Takahashi, I., Sato, Y., and Iguti, K. (1991) Death of ezo-spruce around log depots after partial cuttings and the dynamics of adult spruce beetles. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For. 84: 39–52. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  23. Nashimoto, M. (1991) Morphological symptoms of the damaged Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) trees in the Kanto District. Jpn. J. For. Environ. 33: 59–64. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  24. Nashimoto, M. and Takahashi, K. (1991) Decline of Japanese ceder (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) trees in the Kanto-Koshin and Kansai-Setouchi districts. Jpn. J. For. Environ. 32: 70–78. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  25. Nashimoto, M., Takahashi, K., and Ashihara, S. (1993) Comparison of decline of Japanese ceder (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stands with soil chemical properties in the Kanto-Koshin district. Environ. Sci. 6: 121–130. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  26. Ohsato, S., Kurahashi, A., Yamamoto, H., Takahashi, I., and Arisawa, H. (1993) Continuous observations and environmental analysis of forest decline in sub-arctic coniferous forests (I): Initial research of permanent plots in the Tokyo University Forest in Hokkaido. Trans. 104th Meet. Jpn. For. Soc.: 513–514. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Osawa, A., Spies, C.J., and Dimond, J.B. (1986) Patterns of tree mortality during an uncontrolled spruce budworm outbreak in Baxiter State Park, 1983. 69pp, Technical Bulletin 121 Maine Agric. Exp. Stn., University of Maine, Orono.Google Scholar
  28. Ozaki, K. (1997) Decline of virgin spruce-fir forest in Akan. North. For. 49: 25–27. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  29. Ravn, H.P. (1985) Expansion of the populations ofIps typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and their local dispersal following gale disaster in Denmark. Z. Angew. Entomol. 99: 26–33.Google Scholar
  30. Schowalter, T.D., Pope, D.N., Coulson, R.N., and Fargo, W.S. (1981) Patterns of southern pine bettle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) infestation enlargement. Forest Sci. 27: 837–849.Google Scholar
  31. Scott, J.T., Siccama, T.G., Johnson, A.H., and Breisch, A.R. (1984) Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 111: 438–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Siccama, T.G., Bliss, M., and Vogelmann, H.W. (1982) Decline of red spruce in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109: 162–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silvertown, J. W. and Doust, J. L. (1993) Introduction to plant population biology. 210pp, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  34. Sinclair, W. A., Lyon, H. H., and Johnson, W. T. (1987) Diseases of trees and shrubs. 573pp, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, W.H. (1989) Effects of acidic precipitation on forest ecosystems in North America.In Acidic precipitation. Vol. 2. Biological and ecological effects. Adriano, D.C. and Johnson, A.H. (eds.), 368pp, Springer-Verlag, New York, 165–188.Google Scholar
  36. Suzuki, K. (1992) Fluctuation of Momi (Abies firma) dead standing trees and change of annual ring width at Mt. Ohyama and the around areas in Kanagawa Prefecture. Bull. Kanagawa Pref. For. Exp. Stn. 19: 23–42. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Takahashi, I. (1992) Occurrence of fungi on declining adult yezo spruce and todo fir in natural forest. Trans. 40th Meet. Hokkaido Jap. For. Soc.: 24–26. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. Takahashi, K. and Nashimoto, M. (1993) Relation between decline of Japanese ceder and dry secondary air pollutants. J. Resour. Environ. 29: 145–154. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  39. Ulrich, B. (1989) Effects of acidic precipitation on forest ecosystems in Europe.In Acidic precipitation. Vol. 2. Biological and ecological effects. Adriano, D.C. and Johnson, A.H. (eds.), 368pp, Springer-Verlag, New York, 189–272.Google Scholar
  40. Yamaguchi, H., Hirasa, T., Koizumi, C., Takai, M., Inouye, M., Kosugi, K., and Nobuchi, A. (1963) Survey and population studies of beetles in the wind-swept areas in Hokkaido (III): Beetle attacks on standing trees during the epidemic period, 1956 to 1958. Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Stn. 151: 75–135. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  41. Yamamoto, H., Kurahashi, A., Ohsato, S., Ohashi, K., Takahashi, I., Arisawa, H., Sato, S., Kawahara, S., Sato, Y., and Shibano, S. (1991) Health evaluations of naturalAbies sachalinensis: A case study in the Tokyo University Forest in Hokkaido. Bull. Tokyo Univ. For. 86: 1–31. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Forest Society and Springer 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenichi Ozaki
    • 1
  • Kenji Fukuyama
    • 1
  • Kaoru Maetô
    • 1
  • Kensuke Itoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Hokkaido Research CenterForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteSapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations