Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 55–60 | Cite as

Effects of temperature on the growth of a Japanese willow (Salix gilgiana Seemen)

  • Kenji Shinohara
  • Akinori Nagao
  • Shiro Okuda
  • Kaoru Niiyama
  • Toyonobu Sugawa
Original Articles


The effects of temperature on the growth characteristics of a Japanese willow (Salix gilgiana Seemen) were studied with respect to dry matter production, wood anatomy and the net photosynthetic rates of leaves. Clonal materials were grown in natural-light rooms (phytotrons) at 30°C/25°C, at 25°C/20°C or at 20°C/15°C (day/night: 12 h/12 h), respectively. The elongation rate of shoots from the beginning of June to the end of July was approximately 22 cm per week under the three different sets of conditions. The shoots reached approximately 3 m in height after 4 months of growth. Total dry matter production and dry weights of stems did not differ very much among the three sets of temperature conditions after 9 months of growth. The dry weight of leaves increased at high temperatures while that of roots decreased. The number of vessels increased significantly at 30°C/25°C and 25°C/20°C, whereas the diameters of vessels and fibers, and the double wall thickness of fibers did not vary markedly under all three temperature regimes. The net photosynthetic rate and the respiration rate in mature leaves were highest at 30°C/25°C, and both activities increased with increases in growth temperature. The increase in the photosynthetic rate was much smaller than that in the respiration rate. Individual plants had been completely adapted to the respective growth temperatures, as judged from the decrease in the photosynthetic rate after the transfer to different temperatures.

Key words

biomass production growth temperature net photosynthesis rate shoot elongation willow (Salix gilgiana Seemen) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Baas, P. (1982) Systematic, phylogenetic, and ecological wood anatomy-History and perspectives.In New perspectives in wood anatomy. Baas, P. (ed.), Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publ., The Hague, 23–58.Google Scholar
  2. Bawa, K.S. (1980) Evolution of dioecy in flowering plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 15–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bazzaz, F.A. (1979) The physiological ecology of plant succession. Annu. Rev. Eco. Syst. 10: 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazzaz, F.A. and Carlson, R.W. (1982) Photosynthetic acclimation to variability in the light environment of early and late successional plants. Oecologia 53: 313–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boecklen, W.J., Price, P.W., and Mopper, S. (1990) Sex and drugs and herbibores: sex-biased herbivory in arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). Ecology 71: 581–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Devantier, Y.A., Moffatt, B., Jones, C., and Charest, P.J. (1993) Microprojectile-mediated DNA delivery to the Salicaceae family. Can. J. Bot. 71: 1458–1466.Google Scholar
  7. Elmqvist, T., Cates, R.G., Harper, J.K., and Gardfjell, H. (1991) Flowering in males and females of a Utah willow,Salix rigida and effects on growth, tannins, phenolic glycosides and sugars. Oikos 61: 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. FAO (1980) Poplars and willows in wood production and land use. FAO Forestry Series No. 10, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  9. Fox, J.F. and Stevens, G.C. (1991) Costs of reproduction in a willow: experimental responces vs. natural variation. Ecology 72: 1013–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Futamura, N. and Shinohara, K. (1997) Expression of a gene for a DnaJ-like protein during flower development in the Japanese willow. 5th International Congress of Plant Mol. Biol. Abst. no. 321.Google Scholar
  11. Harper, J.L. (1977) Population Biology of Plants. 812pp, Academic Press, London, England.Google Scholar
  12. Junttila, O. (1976) Apical growth cessation and shoot tip abscission inSalix. Physiol. Plant. 38: 278–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Junttila, O. (1980) Effect of photoperiod and temperature on apical growth cessation in two ecotypes ofSalix andBetula. Physiol. Plant. 48: 347–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koike, T. (1988) Leaf structure and photosynthetic performance as related to the forest succession of deciduous broad-leaves trees. Plant Species Biol. 3: 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koike, T. and Sakagami, Y. (1985) Comparison of the photosynthetic responses to temperature and light ofBetula maximowicziana andBetula platyphylla var.japonica. Can. J. For. Res. 15: 631–635.Google Scholar
  16. Koike, T., Kohda, H., Mori, S., Takahashi, K., Inoue, M.T., and Lei, T.T. (1995) Growth responses of the cuttings of two willow species to elevated CO2 and temperature. Plant Species Biol. 10: 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kramer, P.J. and Kozlowski, T.T. (1979) Physiology of Woody Plants. 811pp, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Küppers, M. (1984) Carbon relations and competition between woody species in a Central European hedgerow. 1. Photosynthetic characteristics. Oecologia 64: 332–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Küppers, M. (1987) Hecken, Ein Modellfall für die Partnerschaft von Physiologie und Morphologie bie der Pflanzen Pruduktion in Konkurrenzsituationen. Naturwissenschaften 74: 536–547. (in Germany)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Medina, E. (1984) Nurrient balance and physiological processes at the leaf level.In Physiological ecology of plants of the wet tropics. Medina, E., Mooney, H.A., and Vazques-Yanes, C. (eds.), Dr. W. Junk Publ., The Hague, 123–133.Google Scholar
  21. Mitchell, C.P., Ford-Robertson, J.B., Hinckely, T.M., and Sennerby-Forsse, L. (1992) Ecophysiology of Sort Rotation Forest Crops. 308pp, Elsevier Applied Science, London.Google Scholar
  22. Nagao, A. (1983) Differences in flower initiation ofCryptomeria japonica under various alternating temperatures. J. Jpn. For. Soc. 65: 335–338. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  23. Nagao, A. (1985) Floral initiation ofCryptomeria japonica under three different temperature conditions with treatments of various concentrations of GA3. J. Jpn. For. Soc. 67: 414–417. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  24. Nagao, A., Shinohara, K., and Niiyama, K. (1992) Sexual difference in the initial growth of a dioecious willow plant (Salix gilgiana). Abst. 103th Ann. Mtg. Jpn. For. Soc.: 200. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Niiyama, K. (1987) Distribution of salicaceous species and soil texture of habitats along the Ishikari River. Jpn. J. Ecol. 37: 163–174. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  26. Niiyama, K. (1989) Distribution ofChosenia arbutifolia and soil texture of habitats along the Satsunai River. Jpn. J. Ecol. 39: 173–182. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  27. Niiyama, K. (1990) The role of seed dispersal and seedling traits in colonization and coexistence ofSalix species in a seasonally flooded habitat. Ecol. Res. 5: 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Noshiro, S. and Suzuki, M. (1995) Ecological wood anatomy of NepaleseRhododendron (Ericaceae). 2. Intraspecific variation. J. Plant Res. 108: 217–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ohwi, J. (1992) Flora of Japan. Shibundo, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  30. Palo, T.R. (1984) Distribution of birch (Betula spp.), willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Poplus spp.) secondary metabolites and their potential role as chemical defence against herbivores. J. Chem. Ecol. 10: 499–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schulze, E.D. (1982) Plant life forms and their carbon, water and nutrient relations.In Encyclopedia of plant physiology. Lange, O.L., Nobel, P.S., Osmond, C.B., and Zieger, H. (eds.), New Series Vol. 12B, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 615–676.Google Scholar
  32. Sennerby-Forsse, L. (1986) Seasonal variation in the ultrastructure of cambium in young stems of willow (Salix viminalis) in relation to phenology. Physiol. Plant. 67: 529–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shinohara, K. (1995) Effect of ageing on expression of photosynthesis-related genes in pine needles.In Photosynthesis: from Light to Biosphere. Mathis, P. (ed.), Vol. 3, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 627–630.Google Scholar
  34. Shinohara, K. and Murakami, A. (1996) Changes in levels of thylakoid components in chloroplasts of pine needles of different ages. Plant Cell Physiol. 37: 1102–1107.Google Scholar
  35. Smouse, P.E. (1971) The evolutionary advantages of sexual dimorphism. Theor. Popul. Biol. 2: 469–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sugawa, T. and Fujii, T. (1993) Aggrigate rays ofThujopsis dolabrata var.hondai (Cupressaceae). IAWA J. 14: 315–323.Google Scholar
  37. Vapaavuori, E.M. and Vuorinen, A.H. (1989) Seasonal variation in the photosynthetic capacity of a willow (Salix cvAquatica gigantea) canopy. 1. Changes in the activity and amount of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and the content of nitrogen and chlorophyll at different levels in the canopy. Tree Physiol. 5: 423–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Forest Society and Springer 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Shinohara
    • 1
  • Akinori Nagao
    • 1
  • Shiro Okuda
    • 1
  • Kaoru Niiyama
    • 1
  • Toyonobu Sugawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations