Study on the managanese nodule

  • Akihiko Okada
  • Makoto Shima


Chemical and X-ray analyses were performed on the fifteen manganese nodules collected from the Pacific Ocean floor. The results were discussed compared with the previous data on the manganese nodules. Minerals were found to be todorokite, δ-MnO2 and other silicates, montmorillonite, illite, phillipsite and α-SiO2. Average composition shows that copper is concentrated on the deep sea nodules more than the shallow ones, and that the todorokite rich nodules contain more copper and nickel than the δ-MnO2 rich ones. The analyses of fresh water iron-manganese precipitates by bacterial activity suggest that biological process is one of the important factors on the genesis of the sedimentary iron-manganese deposits, including the manganese nodule.


Zeolite Montmorillonite Manganese Nodule Leptothrix Clay Core 
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© The Oceanographical Society of Japan 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akihiko Okada
  • Makoto Shima

There are no affiliations available

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