Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt

, Volume 103, Issue 1, pp 74–82 | Cite as

Luftverschmutzungsprobleme in Schwedischen Wäldern

  • Karin Kvist
  • Pia Barklund
Article

Zusammenfassung

Die Hauptbaumarten in Schweden sind Fichte und Kiefer. Seit kurzem sind Fichtenschäden aufgetreten, die man über weite Strecken transportierten Luftverunreinigungen anlastete. Die Frage ist bis heute nicht endgültig beantwortet. Dagegen hat man auch in Schweden Erfahrungen mit lokalen Schäden durch industrielle Emissionen sammeln können. Solche Schäden werden seit langem in der Land- und der Forstwirtschaft beobachtet, wie die Autorinnen an mehreren Beispielen darlegen. Schadstoff-Untersuchungen bezogen sich auf die Baumarten Fichte, Kiefer und Birke.

Bei der Frage der über weite Strecken transportierten Schadstoffe ist besonders auf die allbekannten Schädigungen vieler schwedischer Seen hinzuweisen. Abet auch Bäume sind betroffen. So wurde in den 70er Jahren das sogenannte “Sub-top-dying” der Fichte beobachtet. Sein Höhepunkt im Summer 1976 konnte nicht allein auf die Trockenheit dieses Jahres zurückgeführt werden. Die heutigen Forschungen und Untersuchungen im Labor und im Gelände beziehen sich in erster Linie auf die Schadstoffe SO2, NOx und Ozon. Untersuchungen zur Frage sekundärer Pilzerkrankungen sind noch im Gange. Man hat aber schon festgestellt, daß der saute Regen offensichtlich die Keimung des SchadpilzesGremmenietla abietina fördert.

Seit dem Summer 1983 läuft ein neues schwedisches Forschungsprogramm mit
  • -Bestandesaufnahmen und Kartierung der Waldschäden,

  • -chemischen Analysen der Belaubung und des Bodens,

  • -Untersuchungen des Chemismus der Verunreinigungen,

  • -Flechten-Uhtersuchungen u. v. a.

Air pollution problems in Swedish forests

Summary

Spruce and pine are the main commercial forest trees of Sweden. Since recently, damages have occurred on spruce for which air pollution coming from faraway sources has been blamed. There are no final answers yet to this question. However, there has been some experience also in Sweden concerning localized damages caused by industrial emissions. Such damages have already been observed for some time in agriculture and forestry, as is shown by the authors citing several examples. Research on damaging agents has been conducted with spruce, pine, and birch.

In the discussion about damaging agents having been transported from faraway sources, especially the well-known damage to many Swedish lakes has to be pointed out. But also trees are affected; the so-called “sub-top dying” of spruce, for example, was observed in the 1970’s. Its peak in the summer of 1976 could not just be blamed on the drought of that year. Today’s research and investigations in the laboratory and in the field are primarily concerned with the damaging agents SO2, NOx and ozone; others on the question of secondary fungal diseases are still going on. It has been found out already that acid precipitation obviously favors germination of the pathogenic fungusGremmeniella abietina.

A new Swedish research program is being conducted since the summer of 1983; it is concerned with
  • -stand inventories and mapping of forest damage;

  • -fotiar and soil chemical analyses;

  • -investigation of the chemistry of pollutants;

  • -investigation of lychens; and quite a bit more.

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Copyright information

© Verlag Paul Parey 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karin Kvist
    • 1
  • Pia Barklund
    • 1
  1. 1.Abt. für Pflanzen und WaldschutzSchwedische Universität für AckerbauUppsalaSchweden

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