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Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt

, Volume 103, Issue 1, pp 61–73 | Cite as

Beobachtungen in der Nähe von kohleverbrennenden Kraftwerken in Pennsylvania/USA

  • D. D. Davis
  • F. A. Wood
  • R. J. Hutnik
  • G. C. Wiedersum
  • W. R. Rossman
Article
  • 16 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Der Einfluß von drei großen, kohleverbrennenden Kraftwerken (Elektrizitätswerken mit hohen Schornsteinen) auf die Vegetation im Südwesten von Pennsylvania, USA, wurde von 1964 an vor ihrer Inbetriebnahme bis zur Gegenwart untersucht. Der Schwefelgehalt im Blattwerk nahe bei und in Windrichtung von den Kraftwerken stieg während der ersten Jahre der Untersuchung an und blieb dann gleich. Durch SO2 verursachte Symptome im Blattwerk wurden an zwei Stellen im Abstand von 10 km von einem der großen Kraftwerke nach der Betriebsaufnahme festgestellt; gleichfalls wurden Symptome bei einem äußerst kleinen Prozentsatz der Waldkiefern im Abstand von 25 km von den Kraftwerken beobachtet. Durch SO2 verursachte Symptome im Blattwerk wurden auch in der Nähe von lokalen Ursprungsquellen wie brennenden Abraumhalden, einem kleinen schon bestehenden Kraftwerk und Koksöfen festgestellt. Verminderungen im Baumwachstum, wie sie jährlich mit einem Durchmesser-Bandmaß gemessen wurden, wurden mit ungünstigen Wetterbedingungen und durch Insekten verursachten Laubfall in Verbindung gebracht, nicht aber mit Entfernung und Richtung von den Kraftwerken. Eine Bohrkern-Zuwachs-analyse wird 1984 bis 1985 durchgeführt werden. Der bei weitem ernsteste durch Luftverschmutzung verursachte Schaden entstand durch Ozon; Ozonschaden war überall, weit verbreitet und oft sehr stark, sogar vor der Betriebsaufnahme der Kraftwerke.

Observations around coal-burning power plants in Pennsylvania/USA

Summary

The impact of three large coal-burning power plants (electric generating stations with tall stacks) on vegetation in southwestern Pennsylvania USA was examined from 1964, prior to operation, to the present. Sulfur levels in foliage close to and downwind from the power plants increased during the early years of the study, then leveled off. Foliar symptoms caused by SO2 were observed at two locations within 10 km of one of the large power plant, after initiation of operation; symptoms were also noted on an extremely small percentage of the Scots pines within 25 km of the power plants. Foliar SO2 symptoms also were observed in the vicinity of local sources such as burning coal-spoil piles, a small existing power plant, and coke ovens. Reductions in tree growth, as measured annually with a diameter tape, were associated with adverse weather conditions and insect defoliation, but not with distance or direction from the power plants. Increment core analysis will be conducted in 1984–1985. By far, the most severe air pollution injury was caused by O3; O3 injury was common, widespread, and often severe, even prior to the initiation of operation of the power plants.

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Copyright information

© Verlag Paul Parey 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. Davis
    • 1
  • F. A. Wood
    • 1
  • R. J. Hutnik
    • 1
  • G. C. Wiedersum
    • 1
  • W. R. Rossman
    • 1
  1. 1.College of AgriculturePennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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