Advertisement

La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento (1978-1999)

, Volume 5, Issue 12, pp 1–45 | Cite as

Spectroscopic and structural properties of metallo-proteins

  • M. Bacci
Article

Conclusions

The author is aware that the argument treated in this review article is so wide that it cannot be exhausted in a single paper and, perhaps, not even in a book. However, the principal purpose was to give a panoramic view as wide as possible of the problems concerning metallo-proteins and, furthermore, to show how knowledges from different fields (physics, chemistry, biology) can concur to the understanding of their properties.

If the present article will stimulate someone to apply his own competence to the investigation of biological processes, it will signify that the main goal has been reached.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J. H. Van Vleck:The Theory of Magnetic and Electric Susceptibilities (London, 1932).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. H. Van Vleck:J. Chem, Phys.,3, 803 (1935).ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. H. Van Vleck:J. Chem. Phys.,3, 807 (1935).ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. H. Van Vleck andA. Sherman:Rev. Mod. Phys.,7, 167 (1935).ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. S. Griffith:The Theory of Transition Metal Ions (London, 1961).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C. J. Ballhausen:Introduction to Ligand Field Theory (New York, N. Y., 1962).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. H. Van Vleck:J. Ghem. Phys.,7, 72 (1939).ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    H. A. Jahn andE. Teller:Proc. R. 8oc. London, Ser. A,161, 220 (1937).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. Englman:The Jahn-Teller Effect in Molecules and Crystals (New York, N. Y., 1972).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    B. Bleaney andD. J. E. Ingram:Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A,63, 408 (1950).ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    A. Abragam andM. H. L. Pryce:Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A,63, 409 (1950).ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    U. Öpik andM. H. L. Pryce:Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A,238, 425 (1957).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    W. Moffitt andA. D. Liehr:Phys. Rev.,106, 1195 (1957);W. Moffitt andW. Thorson:Phys. Rev.,108, 1251 (1957).MathSciNetADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. C. Longuett-Higgins, U. Öpik, M. H. L. Pryce andR. A. Sack:Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A,244, 1 (1958).ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    F. S. Ham:Phys. Rev. A,138, 1727 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    F. S. Ham:Phys. Rev. A,166, 307 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    B. L. Vallee andW. E. C. Wacker: inThe Proteins, Vol.5,Metalloproteins, edited byH. Neurath (New York, N. Y., 1970). A thorough review up to the sixties.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    B. L. Vallee andR. J. P. Williams:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,59, 498 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    R. J. P. Williams:Inorg. Chim. Acta Rev.,5, 137 (1971).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    W. N. Lipscomb : inMethods for Determining Metal Ion Environments in Proteins, edited byD. W. Darnall andR. G. Wilkins (New York, N. Y., 1980), p. 265.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    E. U. Condon andG. H. Shortley:The Theory of Atomic Spectra (London, 1953).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    C. E. Schäffer andC. K. Jørgensen:Mol. Phys.,9, 401 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    C. E. Schäffer:Struct. Bonding (Berlin),5, 68 (1968).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    C. K. Jørgensen:Modern Aspects of Ligand Field Theory (Amsterdam, 1971).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    M. Bacci:Biophys. Chem.,11, 39 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    R. Hoffmann:J. Chem. Phys.,39, 1397 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    R. Hoffmann andW. N. Lipscomb:J. Chem. Phys.,36, 2179, 3489 (1962);37, 2872 (1962).ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    J. A. Pople andD. L. Beveridge:Approximate Molecular Orbital Theory (New York, N. Y., 1970).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    K. H. Johnson:Adv. Quantum Chem.,7, 143 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    K. H. Johnson:Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.,26, 39 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    J. C. Slater:The Calculation of Molecular Orbitals (New York, N. Y., 1979).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    D. A. Case, B. H. Huynh andM. Karplus:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,101, 4433 (1979).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    A. Aizman andD. A. Case:J. Am. Chem. Soc,104, 3269 (1982).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    H. A. Goodwin:Coord. Chem. Rev.,18, 293 (1976), and references therein.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    P. Gütlich:Struct. Bonding (Berlin),44, 83 (1981), and references therein.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    M. Bacci:Phys. Status Solidi B,108, K123 (1981).ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    E. König, G. Bitter, H. A. Goodwin andF. E. Smith:J. Coord. Chem.,2, 257 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    M. Bacci, S. Midollini, P. Stoppioni andL. Sacconi:Inorg. Chem.,12, 1801 (1973).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    E. König, G. Ritter andH. A. Goodwin:Chem. Phys. Lett.,31, 543 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    M. Bacci, M. Cerdonio andS. Vitale:Biophys. Chem.,10, 113 (1979).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    D. N. Stacey:Rep. Prog. Phys.,29, 171 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    R. L. Collins andJ. C. Travis: inMössbauer Effect Methodology, Vol.3 (New York, N. Y., 1967), p. 123.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    R. Ingalls:Phys. Rev. A,133, 787 (1964).ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    B. Holmquist andB. L. Vallee:Methods Enzymol.,49, 149 (1978).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    M. Hatano andT. Nozawa:Adv. Biophys.,11, 95 (1978).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    B. L. Vallee andB. Holmquist: inMethods for Determining Metal Ion Environments in Proteins, edited byD. W. Darnall andR. G. Wilkins (New York, N. Y., 1980), p. 27.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    A. D. Buckingham andP. J. Stephens:Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.,17, 399 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    P. J. Stephens:J. Chem. Phys.,52, 3489 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    P. N. Schatz andA. J. McCaffery:Q. Rev. Chem. Soc.,23, 552 (1969).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    P. J. Stephens:Adv. Chem. Phys.,35, 197 (1976).Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    S. I. Chan, V. W. Hu andR. C. Gamble:J. Mol. Struct.,45, 239 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    S. P. Cramer, K. O. Hodgson, W. O. Gillum andL. E. Mortenson:J. Am. Chem. Soc,100, 3398 (1978).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    R. J. Almassey andR. E. Dickenson:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,75, 2674 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    G. Palmer, G. T. Babcock andL. E. Vickery:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,73, 2206 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    C. L. Nobbs, H. C. Watson andJ. C. Kendrew:Nature (London),209, 339 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    M. F. Perutz:Nature (London),228, 726 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    G. Fermi:J. Mol. Biol.,97, 237 (1975).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    M. F. Perutz, S. Samar Hasnain, P. J. Duke, J. L. Sessler andJ. E. Hahn:Nature (London),295, 535 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    M. Cerdonio, A. Congiu-Castellano, F. Mogno, B. Pispisa, G. L. Romani andS. Vitale:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,74, 398 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Z. S. Herman andG. H. Loew:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,102, 1815 (1980).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    M. Weissbluth:Hemoglobin (Berlin, 1974), Chapt. VI.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    T. D. Smith andJ. R. Pilbrow: inBiological Magnetic Resonance, Vol.2, edited byL. J. Berliner andJ. Reuben (New York, N. Y., 1980), p. 85.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    P. George, J. Beetlestone andJ. S. Griffith:Rev. Mod. Phys.,36, 441 (1964).ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    W. T. Simpson:J. Chem. Phys.,17, 1218 (1949).ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    J. R. Platt: inRadiation Biology, edited byA. Hollaender, Vol. 3 (New York, N. Y., 1956), p. 71.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    M. Gouterman:Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.,206, 70 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    A. J. McHugh, M. Gouterman andC. Weiss jr.:Theor. Chim. Acta,24, 346 (1972).Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    W. A. Eaton, L. K. Hanson, P. J. Stephens, J. C. Sutherland andJ. B. R. Dunn:J. Am. Chem. Soc,100, 4991 (1978).Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    M. W. Makinen, A. K. Churg andH. A. Glick:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,75, 2291 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    A. K. Churg andM. W. Makinen:J. Chem. Phys.,68, 1913 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Y. Seno, N. Kameda andJ. Otsuka:J. Chem. Phys.,72, 6048 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    J. I. Treu andJ. J. Hopfield:J. Chem. Phys.,63, 613 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    L. Vickery, T. Nozawa andK. Sauer:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,98, 343 (1976).Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    M. A. Livshitz, A. M. Arutyunyan andYu. A. Sharonov:J. Chem. Phys.,64, 1276 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    A. P. Mineyev andYu. A. Sharonov:Theor. Chim. Acta,49, 295 (1978).Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Yu. A. Sharonov, A. P. Mineyev, M. A. Livshitz, N. A. Sharonova, V. B. Zhurkin andYu. P. Lysov:Biophys. Struct. Mechanism,4, 138 (1978).Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Y. Seno, N. Kameda andJ. Otsuka:J. Ohem. Phys.,72, 6059 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    B. H. Huynh, G. C. Papaefthymiou, C. S. Yen, J. L. Groves andC. S. Wu:J. Chem. Phys.,61, 3750 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    H. Eicher andA. Trautwein:J. Chem. Phys.,50, 2540 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    A. Trautwein, E. Zimmermann andF. E. Harris:Theor. Chim. Acta,37, 89 (1975).Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    D. Bade andF. Parak:Biophys. Struct. Mechanism,2, 219 (1976).Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    H. Eicher, D. Bade andF. Parak:J. Chem. Phys.,64, 1446 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    C. Rudowicz:Biochim. Biophys. Acta,490, 301 (1977).Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    O. Lumpkin andW. T. Dixon:J. Ohem. Phys.,68, 3485 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    Y. Maeda:Adv. Biophys.,11, 199 (1978).Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    T. A. Kent, K. Spartalian andG. Lang:J. Chem. Phys.,71, 4899 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Y. Seno, N. Kameda andJ. Otsuka:J. Chem. Phys.,72, 6048 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    P. M. Champion andA. J. Sievers:J. Chem. Phys.,72, 1569 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    M. Bacci:J. Chem. Phys.,68, 4907 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    C. D. Stout: inIron-Sulfur Proteins, Vol.4, edited byT. G. Spiro (New York, N. Y., 1982), p. 97.Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    D. Ghosh, W. Furey jr., S. O’Donnell andC. D. Stout:J. Biol. Ohem.,256, 4185 (1981).Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    J. C. M. Tsibris andR. W. Woody:Coord. Chem. Rev.,5, 417 (1970).Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    W. Lovenberg, Editor:Iron-Sulfur Proteins, Vol.1 and2 (New York, N. Y., 1973); Vol.3 (New York, N.Y., 1977).Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    B. A. Averill andW. H. Orme-Johnson:Met. Ions Biol. Syst.,7, 127 (1978).Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    W. D. Phillips, M. Poe, J. F. Weiher, C. C. Mc Donald andW. Lovenberg:Nature (London),227, 574 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    K. K. Rao, M. C. W. Evans, R. Cammack, D. O. Hall, C. L. Thompson, P. J. Jackson andC. E. Johnson:Biochem. J.,129, 1063 (1972).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    R. A. Bair andW. A. Goddard III:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,100, 5669 (1978).Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    R. Malkin andB. G. Malmstron:Adv. Enzymol,33, 177 (1970).Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    J. A. Fee:Struct. Bonding (Berlin),23,1 (1975).Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    T. G. Spiro, Editor:Copper-proteins (New York, N. Y., 1981).Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    P. M. Colman, H. C. Freeman, J. M. Guss, M. Murata, V. A. Norris, J. A. M. Ramshaw andM. P. Venkatappa:Nature (London),272, 319 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    E. T. Adman, R. E. Stenkamp, L. C. Sieker andL. H. Jensen:J. Mol. Biol.,123, 35 (1978).Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    A. S. Brill andG. F. Bryce:J. Chem. Phys.,48, 4398 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    E. I. Solomon, J. W. Hare andH. B. Gray:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,73, 1389 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    E. I. Solomon, J. W. Hare, D. M. Dooley, J. G. Dawson, P. J. Stephens andH. B. Gray:J. Am. Chem. Soc,102, 168 (1980).Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    K. W. Penfield, R. R. Gay, R. S. Himmelwright, N. C. Eickman, V. A. Norris, H. C. Freeman andE. I. Solomon:J. Am. Chem. Soc,103, 4382 (1981).Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    D. R. Mc Millin andM. C. Morris:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,78, 6567 (1981).ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. [108]
    M. Bacci:J. Inorg. Biochem.,13, 49 (1980).Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    A. Bencini, D. Gatteschi andC. Zanchini:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,102, 5234 (1980).Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    J. M. Wiesenfeld, E. P. Ippen andR. Bersohn:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,102, 7256 (1980).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    C. V. Shank andE. P. Ippen:Appl. Phys. Lett.,24, 373 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    E. P. Ippen andC. V. Shank:Appl. Phys. Lett.,27, 488 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    Y. Henry andJ. Peisach:J. Biol. Chem.,253, 7751 (1978).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    M. Hervé, A. Garnier, L. Tosi andM. Steinbuch:Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.,80, 797 (1978).Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    M. Hervé, A. Garnier, L. Tosi andM. Steinbuch:Eur. J. Biochem.,116, 177 (1981).Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    M. Bacci, P. Fabeni, R. Linari andG. P. Pazzi:J. Mol. Struct.,79, 443 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    E. I. Solomon: inCopper-proteins, edited byT. G. Spiro (New York, N. Y., 1981), p. 41, and references therein.Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    H. J. Schugar, E. I. Solomon, W. L. Cleveland andL. Goodman:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,97, 6442 (1975).Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    A. E. Hansen andC. J. Ballhausen:Trans. Faraday Soc.,61, 631 (1965).Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    J. A. Larrabee, T. G. Spiro, N. S. Ferris, W. H. Woodruff, W. A. Maltese andM. S. Kerr:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,99, 1979 (1977).Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    A. R. Amundsen, J. Whelan andB. Bosnich:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,99, 6730 (1977).Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    R. S. Himmelwright, N. C. Eickman, C. D. Lubien andE. I. Solomon:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,102, 5378 (1980).Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    R. S. Himmelwright, N. C. Eickman, C. D. Lubien, K. Lerch andE. I. Solomon:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,102, 7339 (1980).Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    J. S. Richardson, K. A. Thomas, D. H. Rubin andD. C. Richardson:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,72, 1349 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. [125]
    K. M. Beem, D. C. Richabdson andK. V. Rajagopalan:Biochemistry,16, 1930 (1977).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    J. S. Tainer, E. D. Getzoff, C. J. Alden, J. S. Richardson andD. C. Richardson:Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol.,39, 1976 (1980).Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    H. Kamimura andS. Mizuhashi:J. Appl. Phys.,39, 684 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. [128]
    S. Mizuhashi:J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.,26, 468 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. [129]
    I. Y. Chan, W. G. van Dorp, T. J. Schaafsma andJ. H. van der Waals:Mol. Phys.,22, 741, 753 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. [130]
    G. W. Canters, G. Jansen, M. Noort andJ. H. van der Waals:J. Phys. Chem.,80, 2253 (1976).Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    E. C. M. Kielman Van Luijt, H. P. J. M. Dekkers andG. W. Canters:Mol. Phys.,32, 899 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. [132]
    J. A. Kooter andJ. H. van der Waals:Mol. Phys.,37, 997(1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. [133]
    J. A. Shelnutt, L. D. Cheung, R. C. C. Chang, Nai-Teng Yu andR. N. Felton:J. Chem. Phys.,66, 3387 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. [134]
    L. D. Cheung, Nai-Teng Yu andR. H. Felton:Chem. Phys. Lett.,55, 527 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. [135]
    J. A. Shelnutt andD. C. O’Shea:J. Chem. Phys.,69, 5361 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. [136]
    I. B. Bersuker, S. S. Stavrov andB. G. Vekhter:Chem. Phys.,69, 165 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. [137]
    M. Weissbluth:J. Theor. Biol.,35, 597 (1972).Google Scholar
  138. [138]
    L. Cianchi, F. Gulisano, M. Mancini andG. Spina:Phys. Lett. A,59, 247 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. [139]
    S. Mizuhashi:J. Theor. Biol.,66, 13 (1977).Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    S. Mizuhashi:Rep. Res. Inst. Electr. Commun. Tohoku Univ.,29, 73 (1978).Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    I. B. Bersuker andS. S. Stavrov:Chem. Phys.,54, 331 (1981).ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. [142]
    M. Bacci:Chem. Phys. Lett.,48, 184 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. [143]
    O. Lumpkin andW. T. Dixon:J. Chem. Phys.,68, 3485 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. [144]
    S. Mizuhashi:J. Phys. Soc Jpn.,45, 612 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. [145]
    I. B. Beesukeb, S. S. Staveov andB. G. Vekhter:Biofizika,24, 413 (1979).Google Scholar
  146. [146]
    A. P. Mineyev, Yu. A. Sharonov, N. A. Sharonova andV. A. Figlovsky:Int. J. Quantum Chem.,16, 883 (1979).Google Scholar
  147. [147]
    A. S. Brill:Biophys. J.,22, 139 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. [148]
    C. W. Carter jr., J. Kraut, S. T. Freer andE. A. Alden:J. Biol. Ohem.,249, 6339 (1974).Google Scholar
  149. [149]
    R. S. Gall, N. G. Connelly andL. F. Dahl:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,96, 4017 (1974).Google Scholar
  150. [150]
    K. S. Gall, C. T. Chu andL. F. Dahl:J. Am. Ohem. Soe.,96, 4019 (1974).Google Scholar
  151. [151]
    C. Y. Yang, K. H. Johnson, R. H. Holm andJ. G. Norman jr.:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,97, 6596 (1975).Google Scholar
  152. [152]
    E. J. Laskowski, R. B. Frankel, W. O. Gillum, G. C. Papaefthymiou, J. Renaud, J. A. Ibers andR. H. Holm:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,100, 5322 (1978).Google Scholar
  153. [153]
    A. J. Thomson:J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 1180 (1981).Google Scholar
  154. [154]
    I. B. Bersuker:Coord. Chem. Rev.,14, 375 (1975).Google Scholar
  155. [155]
    L. L. Lohr jr. andW. N. Lipscomb:Inorg. Chem.,2, 911 (1963).Google Scholar
  156. [156]
    C. J. Ballhausen andJ. de Heer:J. Chem. Phys.,43, 4304 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. [157]
    A. E. Nikiforov, S. Yu. Shashkin andA. I. Krotkii:Phys. Status Solidi B,97, 475 (1980) ;98, 289 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. [158]
    M. Bacci:Chem. Phys. Lett.,58, 537 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. [159]
    M. Bacci:Chem. Phys.,40, 237 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. [160]
    A. M. Schaffer, M. Gouterman andE. R. Davidson:Theor. Chim. Acta,30, 9 (1973).Google Scholar
  161. [161]
    L. D. Landau andE. M. Lifshitz:Quantum Mechanics, 3rd edition (Oxford, 1977).Google Scholar
  162. [162]
    G. Gamow:Z. Phys.,51, 204 (1928).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  163. [163]
    R. W. Gurney andE. U. Condon:Nature (London),122, 439 (1928);Phys. Rev.,33, 127 (1929).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  164. [164]
    R. H. Fowler andL. Nordheim:Proc R. Soc. London, Ser. A,119, 173 (1928).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  165. [165]
    L. Nordheim:Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A,121, 626 (1928).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  166. [166]
    R. P. Bell:The Tunnel Effect in Chemistry (London, 1980).Google Scholar
  167. [167]
    B. Chance,D. De Vault,H. Frauenfelder,R. A. Marcus,J. R. Schrieffer andN. Sutin, Editors:Tunneling in Biological Systems (New York, N. Y., 1979).Google Scholar
  168. [168]
    B. Chance andM. Nishimura:Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,46, 19 (1960).ADSGoogle Scholar
  169. [169]
    D. De Vault andB. Chance:Biophys. J.,6, 825 (1966).Google Scholar
  170. [170]
    D. De Vault, J. H. Parkes andB. Chance:Nature (London),215, 642 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  171. [171]
    V. I. Goldanskii:Nature (London),279, 109 (1979), and references therein.ADSGoogle Scholar
  172. [172]
    R. H. Austin, K. W. Beeson, L. Eisenstein, H. Frauenfelder andI. C. Gunsalus:Biochemistry,14, 5355 (1975).Google Scholar
  173. [173]
    N. Albeeding, R. H. Austin, K. W. Beeson, S. S. Chan, L. Eisenstein, H. Frauenfeldee andT. M. Nordlund:Science,192, 1002 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  174. [174]
    N. Alberding, R. H. Austin, S. S. Chan, L. Eisenstein, H. Frauenfelder, I. C. Gunsalus andT. M. Nordlund:J. Chem. Phys.,65, 4701 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  175. [175]
    H. Frauenfelder: inTunneling in Biological Systems, edited byB. Chance,D. De Vault,H. Frauenfelder,R. A. Marcus,J. R. Schrieffer andN. Sutin (New York, N.Y., 1979), p. 627.Google Scholar
  176. [176]
    R. H. Austin, K. W. Beeson, L. Eisenstein, H. Frauenfelder, I. C. Gunsalus andV. P. Marshall:Phys. Rev. Lett.,32, 403 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. [177]
    C. Zener:Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A,137, 696 (1932).ADSGoogle Scholar
  178. [178]
    J. Jortner andJ. Ulstrup:J. Am. Chem. Soc.,101, 3744 (1979).Google Scholar
  179. [179]
    J. J. Hopfield:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,71, 195 (1974).Google Scholar
  180. [180]
    J. Jortner:J. Chem. Phys.,64, 4860 (1976).ADSGoogle Scholar
  181. [181]
    B. Fain:Chem. Phys. Lett.,67, 267 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  182. [182]
    A. Sarai:Chem. Phys. Lett.,63, 360 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  183. [183]
    E. G. Petrov:Int. J. Quantum Chem.,16, 133 (1979).Google Scholar
  184. [184]
    R. A. Marcus: inLight-Induced Charge Separation in Biology and Chemistry, edited byH. Gerischer andJ. J. Katz (Berlin, Dahlem Konferenzen, 1979), p. 15, and references therein.Google Scholar
  185. [185]
    M. Redi andJ. J. Hopfield:J. Chem. Phys.,72, 6651 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  186. [186]
    A. Agresti, M. Bacci andA. Ranfagni:Chem. Phys. Lett.,79, 100 (1981).ADSGoogle Scholar
  187. [187]
    A. M. Chang andR. H. Austin:J. Chem. Phys.,77, 5272 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  188. [188]
    E. Merzbacher:Quantum Mechanics (New York, N. Y., 1970), Chapt. 18.Google Scholar
  189. [189]
    N. Fröman andP. O. Fröman:JWKB Approximation (Amsterdam, 1965).Google Scholar
  190. [190]
    H. H. Limbach andJ. Hennig:J. Chem. Phys.,71, 3120 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  191. [191]
    P. O. Löwdin:Rev. Mod. Phys.,35, 724 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  192. [192]
    B. R. Parker andG. P. Khare:J. Mol. Spectrosc.,41, 195 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  193. [193]
    N. Riehl:Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., Ser. II,27, 772 (1965).Google Scholar
  194. [194]
    J. M. Thomas, J. R. N. Evans, T. J. Lewis andP. Secker:Nature (London),222, 375 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  195. [195]
    S. P. Ionov, V. S. Lyubimov andG. V. Ionova:Z. Fiz. Khim.,48, 1640 (1974).Google Scholar
  196. [196]
    K. Peters, M. L. Applebury andP. M. Rentzepis:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,74, 3139 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  197. [197]
    R. Hubbard andA. Kropf:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,44, 130 (1958).ADSGoogle Scholar
  198. [198]
    B. H. Green, T. G. Monger, R. R. Alfano, B. Aton andR. H. Callender:Nature (London),269, 179 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  199. [199]
    T. Rosenfeld, B. Honig andM. Ottolenghi:Pure Appl. Chem.,49, 341 (1977).Google Scholar
  200. [200]
    B. Honig, T. Ebrey, R. H. Callender, U. Dinur andM. Ottolenghi:Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,76, 2503 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  201. [201]
    A. Sarai, T. Kakitani andH. Kakitani:Photochem. Photobiol.,33, 875 (1981).Google Scholar
  202. [202]
    V. I. Goldanskii:Chem. Scr.,13, 1 (1978-79).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bacci
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche del C.N.B.FirenzeItalia

Personalised recommendations