Endocrine Pathology

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 181–187 | Cite as

Proliferative activity in pancreatic endocrine tumors: Association with function, metastases, and survival

  • Martha R. Clarke
  • Evan E. Baker
  • Robert J. Weyant
  • Lisa Hill
  • Sally E. Carty
Clinical Research


Endocrine tumors of the pancreas are slow-growing lesions, yet one-third to one-half will metastasize. It is generally accepted that histopathologic features do not reliably predict metastatic potential or outcome. We investigated whether proliferative activity, as determined by MIB-1 labeling, correlated with tumor type, metastasis, or patient survival. Formalin-fixed sections of pancreatic endocrine tumors were immunohistochemically stained for the MIB-1 antibody against Ki-67 using the avidin-biotin complex technique. Labeling index (LI) was determined by counting 1000 consecutive tumor cells in an area of greatest staining intensity at ×400 and expressed as a percentage. The study group included 37 patients, including 10 gastrinomas, 9 insulinomas, 4 glucagonomas, 2 VIPomas, and 12 nonfunctioning tumors. Twenty-one patients had metastases, primarily to regional lymph nodes and the liver. Five patients had MEN I. MIB-1 LI was significantly greater in the nonfunctioning tumors (mean 20.9%) than in the functioning tumors (mean 5.1%) (p = 0.01). LI for functional tumors (insulinomas 6.4%, glucagonoma 4.4%, gastrinomas 3.2%, VIPomas 3.2%) were similar to each other. MIB-1 was significantly higher in those tumors that metastasized (mean 15.6%) compared to those that did not (mean 3.1%), (p = 0.04). All tumors with MIB-1 LI≥10% developed metastases. Logistic regression showed that MIB-1 was a significant predictor of metastases (p = 0.003) after adjusting for functional status. MIB-1 LI also correlated with outcome in that those patients with MIB-1 LI ≥10% had a mean survival of 19 mo compared to 72 mo for those with levels <10% (p = 0.0001). Results of the proportional hazards model showed that MIB-1 remained a significant (p = 0.03) and independent predictor of survival times after adjustment for tumor size and functional status. Higher MIB-1 LI values, were significantly associated with shorter survival times. In conclusion, MIB-1 LI appears to be a useful indicator of metastatic potential and is predictive of outcome in PET.

Key Words

Pancreatic endocrine tumor MIB-1 proliferation prognosis survival metastases 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha R. Clarke
    • 1
  • Evan E. Baker
    • 1
  • Robert J. Weyant
    • 3
  • Lisa Hill
    • 1
  • Sally E. Carty
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Pittshurgh School of MedicinePittsburgh
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Pittshurgh School of MedicinePittsburgh
  3. 3.School of Dental HealthPittsburgh

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