Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 448–455 | Cite as

Effect of malathion on ultrastructure of synapses in forebrain of the goldfish and rainbow trout

  • N. N. Ruzhinskaya
Morphological Bases for Evolution of Functions


An electron microscope study of the effect of sublethal concentrations of malathion on the length of active zones has been performed in synapses of forebrain in the goldfish and rainbow trout. There was established a statistically significant reversible decrease of the main values of the length of sections of active zones in asymmetric and symmetric synapses under action of the toxicant. Effect of malathion increases proportionally to an increase of its concentration. In the both fish species the response to malathion was more pronounced in the asymmetric synapses compared to the symmetric ones. The obtained results allow considering that malathion causes changes in configuration and dimensions of the active zones of the cholinergic and probably GABAergic synapses. An adaptive character of these changes is discussed.


Rainbow Trout Active Zone Malathion Evolutionary Biochemistry GABAergic Synapse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Prozorovskii, V.B. and Livanov, G.A., Some Theoretical and Clinical Problems of Toxicology of Organophosphorus Insecticides,Toksikol. Vestnik, 1997, no. 3, pp. 2–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grue, C.E., Hart, D.M. and Mineau, P., Biological Consequences of Depressed Brain Cholinesterase Activity in Wildlife,Chemicals in Agriculture,vol. 2, Cholinesterase Inhibiting Insecticides. Their Impact on Wildlife and the Environment, Mineau, P., Ed., Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, 1991, pp. 151–210.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bushnell, P.J., Pape, C.N., and Padilla, S.J., Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Acute Chloryfos in Rats: Tolerance to Prolonged Inhibition of Cholinesterase,Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1993, vol. 226, pp. 1007–1017.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wess, J., Molecular Biology of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors,Neurobiology, 1996, vol. 10(1), pp. 69–99.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moshkov, D.A.,Actaptation and Ultrastructure of Neuron, Moscow, 1985.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babmindra, V.P., Batuev, AS., and Bragina, T.A., Structural Base of Plasticity of the Nervous System,Biol. Nauki, 1988, no. 3, pp. 82–93.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kotlyar, B.I., Myasnikov, A.A., and Khludova, G.G., Plasticity and Its Physiological Markers in Microsystem of Cortical Neurons at Multiple Local Stimulation,Biol. Nauki, 1988, no. 3, pp. 93–111.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Manual of Acute Toxicolody: Interpretation and Data Base for 410 Chemicals and 66 Species of Freshwater Animals, Mayer, L.F., Jr. and Ellersieck, R.M., Eds., Resource Publication 160, Washigton, DC, 1986, pp. 285–288.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Brien, R.,Toxic Phosphorus Esters, Moscow, 1964.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gantverg, A.N. and Perevoznikov, M.A., Inhibition of Cholinesterase from Brain of the PerchPerca fluviatilis L. (Percidae) and CarpCyprinus carpio L. (Cyprinidae) at Carbofos Action,Vopr. Ikhtiol, 1983, vol. 23, pp. 693–694.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Niewenhuys, R., Comparative Anatomy of Olfactory Centers and Tracts, in:Progress in Brain Research, Zotterman, Y., Ed., New York: Elsevier, 1967, vol. 23, pp. 1–64.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gray, E.G., Axo-Somatic and Axo-Dendritic Synapses of the Cerebral Cortex: An Electron-Microscope Study,J. Anat. (London), 1959, vol. 93, pp. 420–433.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shepherd, G. M. and Gréer, C.A., Olfactory Bulb,The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, Shepherd, G.M., Ed., New York: Oxford U.P., 1990, pp. 133–169.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lentz, T.L. and Cheter, Y., Localization of Acetylcholine Receptors in Central Synapses,J. Celt. Biol., 1977, vol. 75, pp. 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kasa, P., The Cholinergic Systems in Brain and Spinal Cord,Progr. Neurobiol. 1986, vol. 26, pp. 211–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ruzhinskaya, N.N., Gdovskii, P.A., and Menzikova, O.V., Ultrastructural Localization of Choline Acetyltransferase in the Glomerular Layer of the Olfactory Bulb in the CarpCyprinus carpio, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol, 1997, vol. 33, pp. 657–661.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ilinnsky, L.A., Yi, H., and Kultasilinky, K., Mode of Termination of Pallidal Afferents to the Thalamus—A Light and Electron Microscopic Study with Anterograde Tracers and Immunocytochemistry inMacaca mulatia, J. Comp. Neurol, 1997, vol. 386, Issue 4, pp. 601–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kobayashi, M., Nemoto, T., Nagata, H.,et al, Immunohistochemical Studies on Glutamatergic, GABA-Ergic and Glycinergic Axon Varicosities Presynaptic to Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons in the Superior Salivatory Nucleus of the Rat,Brain Res., 1997, vol. 766, pp. 72–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Luzhnikov, E.A.,Clinical Toxicolody, Moscow, 1994.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lallement, G., Carpentier, P., Pernet-Mario, J.,et al, Transient Impairment of the GABA-Ergic Function during Initiation of Soman Indused Seizures,Brain Res., 1993, vol. 629, pp. 239–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moshkov, D.A. and Masyuk, L.N., Accomodational Changes of Synaptic Junctions at Prolonged Actaptation of Neuron to Extremal Stimulation,Tsitologiya, 1981, vol. 23, pp. 360–367.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moshkov, D.A., Pavlik, L.L., Muzafarova, L.N.,et al, Cytochemical Identification of Actin at the Ultrastructural Level in the Hippocampal Area CA3,Tsitologiya, 1986, vol. 28, pp. 803–806.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moshkov, D.A. and Tiras, H.R., Differences in Cytoskeletal Structure between Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses,Tsitologiya, 1987, vol. 29, pp. 156–160.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matus, A., Ackermann, M., Pehling, G.,et al, High Actin Concentrations in Brain Dendritic Spines and Postsynaptic Densities,Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 1982, vol. 79, pp. 7590–7594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosenmund, C. and Westbrook, G.L., CalciumInduced Actin Depolymerization Reduced NMDA Channel Activity,Neuron, 1993, vol. 10, pp. 805–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zapara, T.A., Simonova, O.G., Zharkikh, A.A., and Ratushnyak, A.S., Effect of Dynamic State of Cytoskeleton of Neuronal Plasticity,Ross. Fiziol. Zh., 1999. vol. 85, no. I, pp. 128–130.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schwiebert, E.M., Mills, J.W., and Stanton, B.A., Actin-Based Cytoskeleton Regulates a Chloride Channel and Cell Volume in a Renal Cortical Collecting Duct Cell Line,J. Biol. Chem., 1994, vol. 269, no. 10, pp. 7081–7089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Suzuki, M., Miyazaki, K., Ikeda, M.,et al., F-Actin Network May Regulate CI-Channels in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells,J. Membr. Biol., 1993, vol. 134, pp. 31–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eshleman, Amy J. and Murray, T.F., Pyretroid Insecticides Indirectly Inhibit GABA-Dependent Cl-Influx in Synaptoneurosomes from the Trout Brain,Neuropharmacol, 1991, vol. 30, no. 112A, pp. 133–134.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. N. Ruzhinskaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biology of Inland WatersRussian Academy of SciencesBorokRussia

Personalised recommendations