Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 63–79 | Cite as

Dentition ofSivaladapis nagrii (Adapidae) from the late Miocene of India

  • Philip D. Gingerich
  • Ashok Sahni
Article

Abstract

Two genera and three species of adapid primates are known from the middle and late Miocene of India and Pakistan. Most fossil specimens are fragmentary, but the best-known species, Sivaladapis nagrii,is now represented by enough specimens to permit composite reconstruction of much of the dentition. The incisors of Sivaladapishave spatulate crowns, and the canines are large, projecting teeth. Premolars and molars exhibit complex occlusion involving simultaneous approximation of pointed leading cusps on upper and lower molars, with linear trailing lophs. The premolar eruption sequence in Sivaladapisappears to be P2-P4-P3, as in most extant prosimians. Symphyseal fusion of the mandibular rami occurred early in ontogeny, before the eruption of any of the anterior permanent teeth. We interpret Sivaladapisto have been a specialized arboreal folivore that became extinct near the end of the Miocene, when the distribution of forests was increasingly restricted and colobine monkeys first invaded South Asia.

Key words

Sivaladapis Adapidae Miocene primates tooth eruption symphyseal fusion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barry, J. C. (1980). Occurrence of a hyaenodontine creodont (Mammalia) in the late Miocene of Pakistan.J. Paleontol. 54: 1128–1131.Google Scholar
  2. Barry, J. C., Lindsay, E. H., and Jacobs, L. L. (1982). A biostratigraphic zonation of the middle and upper Siwaliks of the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan.Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 37: 95–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beecher, R. M. (1983). Evolution of the mandibular symphysis in Notharctinae (Adapidae, Primates).Int. J. Primatol. 4: 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chopra, S. R. K., and Kaul, S. (1979). A new species ofPliopithecus from the Indian Siwaliks.J. hum. Evol. 8: 475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chopra, S. R. K., and Vasishat, R. N. (1979). Some observations on the dentition of newIndraloris (Primates) fossil material from the Nagri deposits of Haritalyangar (H.P.), India, with remarks on the taxonomic status ofSivanasua (Carnivora) from the Siwaliks of the Indian subcontinent.VII Congr. Int. Primatol. Soc. Abstr. Papers, Macmillan India Press, Madras, p. 144.Google Scholar
  6. Chopra, S. R. K., and Vasishat, R. N. (1980a). A new Mio-PlioceneIndraloris (Primates) material with comments on the taxonomic status ofSivanasua (Carnivora) from the Sivaliks of the Indian subcontinent.J. hum. Evol. 9: 129–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chopra, S. R. K., and Vasishat, R. N. (1980b). Première indication de la présence dans le Mio-Pliocene des Siwaliks de l’Inde d’un Primate adapidé,Indoadapis shivaii, nov. gen., nov. sp.C.R. Acad. Sei. Paris 290: 511–513.Google Scholar
  8. Fleagle, J. G., Kay, R. F., and Simons, E. L. (1980). Sexual dimorphism in early anthropoids.Nature 287: 328–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flynn, L. J., and Jacobs, L. L. (1982). Effects of changing environments on Siwalik rodent faunas of northern Pakistan.Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 38: 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gingerich, P. D., and Sahni, A. (1979).Indraloris andSivaladapis: Miocene adapid primates from the Siwaiiks of India and Pakistan.Nature 279: 415–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gingerich, P. D., Smith, B. H., and Rosenberg, K. (1982). Allometric scaling in the dentition of primates and prediction of body weight from tooth size in fossils.Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 58: 81–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hartenberger, J.-L. (1982). A review of the Eocene rodents of Pakistan.Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich. 26: 19–35.Google Scholar
  13. Jacobs, L. L. (1981). Miocene lorisid primates from the Pakistan Siwaliks.Nature 289: 585–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, G. D., and Vondra, C. F. (1972). Siwalik sediments in a portion of the Punjab reentrant: The sequence at Haritalyangar, District Bilaspur, H. P.Himalayan Geol. (Wadia Inst. Delhi) 2: 118–144.Google Scholar
  15. Kay, R. F. (1975). The functional adaptations of primate molar teeth.Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 43: 196–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kay, R. F., and Hiiemae, K. M. (1974). Jaw movement and tooth use in recent and fossil primates.Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 40: 227–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kay, R. F., and Hylander, W. L. (1978). The dental structure of mammalian fplivores with special reference to Primates and Phalangeroidea (Marsupialia). In Montgomery, G. G. (eds.),The Biology of Arboreal Folivores, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 173–191.Google Scholar
  18. Lewis, G. E. (1933). Preliminary notice of a new genus of lemuroid from the Siwaliks.Am. J. Sci. 26: 134–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pilgrim, G. E. (1932). The fossil Carnivora of India.Mem. Geol. Surv. India 18: 1–232.Google Scholar
  20. Prasad, K. N. (1963). Fossil Carnivora from the Siwalik beds of Haritalyangar, Himachal Pradesh.Indian Minerals 17: 95.Google Scholar
  21. Prasad, K. N. (1970). The vertebrate fauna from the Siwalik beds of Haritalyangar, Himachal Pradesh, India.Mem. Geol. Surv. India 39: 1–55.Google Scholar
  22. Rose, K. D., and Simons, E. L. (1977). Dental function in the Plagiomenidae: Origin and relationships of the mammalian order Dermoptera.Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich. 24: 221–236.Google Scholar
  23. Schwartz, J. H. (1975). Development and eruption of the premolar region of prosimians and its bearing on their evolution. In Tattersall, I., and Sussman, R. W. (eds.),Lemur Biology, Plenum, New York, pp. 41–63.Google Scholar
  24. Shigehara, N. (1980). Epiphyseal union, tooth eruption, and sexual maturation in the common tree shrew, with reference to its systematic problem.Primates 21: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Simons, E. L. (1972).Primate Evolution, an Introduction to Man’s Place in Nature, Macmillan, New York, pp. 1–322.Google Scholar
  26. Stehlin, H. G. (1912). Die SÄugetiere des schweizerischen Eocaens—Adapis.Abh. Schweiz. PalÄont. Ges. 38: 1165–1298.Google Scholar
  27. Szalay, F. S., and Delson, E. (1979).Evolutionary History of the Primates, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–580.Google Scholar
  28. Tattersall, I. (1968). A mandible ofIndraloris (Primates, Lorisidae) from the Miocene of India.Postilla Yale Peabody Mus. 123: 1–10.Google Scholar
  29. Thomas, H., and Verma, S. N. (1979). Découverte d’un Primate adapiforme (Sivaladapinae subfam. nov.) dans le Miocène moyen des Siwaliks de la région de Ramnager (Jammu et Cachemire, Inde).C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 289: 833–836.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip D. Gingerich
    • 1
  • Ashok Sahni
    • 2
  1. 1.Museum of PaleontologyThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor
  2. 2.Centre of Advanced Studies in GeologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations