Human Nature

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 81–107 | Cite as

Cultivating male allies

A focus on primate females, includingHomo sapiens
  • Bonnie Lori Hooks
  • Penny Anthon Green


Females make large investments in their children and compete among themselves to establish and maintain privileged relationships with male allies who demonstrate both an ability and a willingness to provide fitness-enhancing advantages. Various “strategies” and their more numerous, associated “tactics” are utilized in the competition. Alleged strategies include using sexuality, producing offspring, assisting the male in his own intrasexual contests, and harassing female competitors. The strategies in question are documented in multiple primate species, including humans living in various times and places. Some variables are discussed that influence the degree to which human females rely upon them.

Key words

Intrasexual competition Female competition Female reproductive strategies Sexual selection Mate selection Teen pregnancy 


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Copyright information

© Walter de Gruyter, Inc 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bonnie Lori Hooks
    • 1
  • Penny Anthon Green
    • 2
  1. 1.Austin
  2. 2.Department of SociologyClemson UniversityClemson

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