Advertisement

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 65, Issue 5, pp 691–705 | Cite as

Neuroblastoma

  • Sanjay Shah
  • Y. Ravindranath
Symposium: Hematology/Oncology-I

Abstract

The neuroblastic tumours originate from primordial neural crest cells that normally develop into sympathetic nervous system, including the adrenal medulla. Neuroblastoma is the most intriguing pediatric neoplasm displaying diverse clinical and biologic characteristics and natural history1. It has thre highest rate of spontaneous regression of all human cancers, yet exhibits extremely malignant behaviour in older children with regional and disseminated disease. In the last 30 years, only a nominal improvement has occurred in the outlook of older children with metastatic disease at diagnosis. Tremendous gains in understanding of the biology of neuroblastoma in recent years have led to development of risk-related therapy based on age, stage and biological characteristics of neuroblastoma.

Key words

Neuroblastoma Biology Therapy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brodeu GM, Castleberry RP. Neuroblastoma. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG(eds.),Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. J.B. Lippincott, Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1997 : 761–797.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gurney JG, Severson RK, Davis S, Robinson LL. Incidence of cancer in children in the United States.Cancer 1995; 75: 2186–2195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beckwith J, Perrin E. In situ neuroblastoma: a contribution to natural history of neuroblastic tumors.Am J Pathol 1963; 43 :1089–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ikeda Y, Lister J, Bouton JM, Buyukpanmukku M. Congenital neuroblastoma, neuroblastoma in situ and normal fetal development of the adrenal.J Pediatr Surg 1981; 16:636–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bessho F, Hashizume K. Nakajo T, Kamoshita S. Mass screening in Japan increased the detection of infants with neuroblastoma without a decrease in cases in older children.J Pediatr 1991; 119:237–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Woods WG, Tuchman M, Robison LL,et al. A population based study of the usefulness of screening for neuroblastoma.Lancet 1996; 348:1682–1687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kushner GH, Gilbert F, Helson L. Familial neuroblastoma: case report, literature review and etiologic considerations.Cancer 1986; 57 :1887–1893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Knudson AG. Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1971; 68 : 820–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kushner BH, Hajdu SI, Helson L. Synchronous neuroblastoma and Von Recklinghausen’s disease: a review of the literature.J Clin Oncol 1985; 3 :117–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maris JM, Chatten J, Meadows AT, Biegel JA, Brodeur GM. Familial neuroblastoma: new affected members and further association with Hirschsprung disease.Med Pediatr Oncol 1997; 28 :1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nakagawara A, Arima-Nakagawara M, Scavarda NJ, Azar CG, Cantor AB, Brodeur GM. Association between high levels of expression of the TRK gene and favorable outcome in human neuroblastoma.N Engl J Med 1993 ; 328: 847–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suzuki T, Bogenmann E, Shimada H, Stram D, Seeger RC. Lack of high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors in aggressive neuroblastomas.J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85:377–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hsiao RJ, Seeger RC, Yu AL, O’Connor DT. Chromogranin A in children with neuroblastoma.J Clin Invest 1990; 85: 1555–1559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kogner P, Bjork O, Theodorsson E. Neuropeptide Y in neuroblastoma: increased concentration in metastasis, release during surgery, and characterization of plasma and tumor extracts.Med Pediatr Oncol 1993; 21 :317–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brodeur GM, Sekhon GS, Goldstein MN. Chromosomal aberrations in human neuroblastomas.Cancer 1977; 40: 2256–2263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brodeur GM, Green AA, Hayes FA, Williams KJ, Williams DL, Tsiatis AA. Cytogenetic features of human neuroblastomas and cell lines.Cancer Res 1981; 41: 4678–4686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weith A, Martinsson T, Cziepluch C, Bruderlein S, Amler LC, Berthold F. Neuroblastoma consensus deletion maps to 1p36.1-2.Genes Chromosom Cancer 1989; 1:159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Schwab M, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Amplification of Nmyc in untreated human neuroblastomas correlates with advanced disease stage.Science 1984; 224:1121–1124;PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fong CT, Dracopoli NC, White PSet al. Loss of heterozygosity for the short arm of chromosome 1 in human neuroblastoma: correlation with N-myc amplification.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86 : 3753–3757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Russell DS, Rubenstein LJ. Tumors of peripheral neuroblasts and ganglion cells. In: Pathology of tumors of the central nervous system. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989; 900.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shimada H. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies on the tumors of neuroblastoma group.Acta Pathol Jpn 1982; 32: 415–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dehner LP. Pathologic anatomy of classic neuroblastoma: Including prognostic features and differential diagnosis. In : Pochedly C (ed.)Neuroblastoma : Tumor Biology and Therapy. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, 1990; 111.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delellis RA. The adrenal glands. In: Sternbert SS (ed.)Diagnostic Surgibal Pathology. Vol. 1, New York : Raven Press, 1989:445.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raney RB, Lyon GM, Porter FS. Neurob. lastoma simulating acute leukemia.J Pediatr 1976; 89:433–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boyd JE, Parmley RT, Langevin AMet al. Neuroblastoma presenting as acute monoblastic leukemia.J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1996; 18 (2): 206–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shimada H, Chatten J, Newton WA Jr.,et al. Histopathologic prognostic factors in neuroblastic tumors: Definition of subtypes of ganglipneuroblastoma and an age-linked classification of neuroblastomas.J Natl Cancer Inst 1984; 73 : 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Evans AE, D’Angio GJ, Propert K, Anderson J, Hann HWL. Prognostic factors in neuroblastoma.Cancer 1987; 59: 1853–1859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Joshi V, Cantor A, Altshuler Get al. Prognostic significance of histopathologic features of neuroblastoma: A grading system based on the review of 211 cases from the Pediatric Oncology Group.Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1991; 10 :311.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Joshi V, Rao P, Cantor Aet al. Modified histologic grading of neuroblastomas by replacement of mitotic rate with mitosis karyorrhexis index.Cancer 1996; 77: 1582–1589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Castleberry RD, Pritchard J, Ambros Pet al. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Groups (INRG): a preliminary report.Europ J Cancer 1997; 33 : 2113–2116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ravindranath Y, Gushing B. Neuroblastoma of the neck and chest. In: Pochedly C. (ed.)Neuroblastoma : Clinical and Biologic Manifestations. Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc., New York, NY, 1982 : 39–49.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Barrett Aet al. International criteria for diagnosis, staging and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma.J Clin Oncol 1988; 6: 1874–1881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold Fet al. Revisions in the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment.J Clin Oncol 1993; 11: 1466–1477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith EI, Haase GM, Seeger RC, Brodeur GM. A surgical perspective on the current staging in neuroblastoma: the international neuroblastoma staging system proposal.J Pediatr Surg 1989; 24:386–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Evans AE, D’Angio GJ, Randolph JA. A proposed staging for children with neuroblastoma: Children’s Cancer Study Group A.Cancer 1971; 27:374–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hayes FA, Green AA, Hustu HO, Kumar M. Surgicopathologic staging of neuroblastoma: prognostic significance of regional lymph node metastases.J Pediatr 1983; 102:59–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hann HWL, Evans AE, Cohen IJ, Leitmeyer JE. Biologic differences between neuroblastoma stage IVS and IV: Measurement of serum ferritin and E-rosette inhibition in 30 children.N Engl J Med 1981; 305:425–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hann HWL, Evans AE, Siegel SEet al. Prognostic importance of serum ferritin in patients with stages III and IV neuroblastoma: the Children’s Cancer Study Group experience.Cancer Res 1985; 45 : 2843–2848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hann HWL, StahlhutMW, Evans AE. Serum ferritin as a prognostic indicator in neuroblastoma: biologic effects of isoferritins.Prog Clin Biol Res 1985; 175 : 331–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hann HWL, Stalhult BS, Evans AE. Basic and acidic isoferritins in sera of patients with neuroblastoma.Cancer 1988; 62: 1179–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Silber JH, Evans AE, Fridman M. Models to predict outcome from childhood neuroblastoma: the role of serum ferritin and tumor histology.Cancer Res 1991; 51 : 1426–1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zeltzer PM, Marangos PJ, Evans AE, Schneider SL. Serumneuron-specific enolase in children with neuroblastoma: relationship to stage and disease course.Cancer 1986; 57:1230–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Quinn JJ, Altman AJ, Frantz CN. Serum lactic dehydrogenase, an indicator of tumor activity in neuroblastoma.J Pediatr 1980; 97: 89–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schengrund CL, Repman MA, Shochat SJ. Ganglioside composition of human neuroblastomas-correlation with prognosis ; a Pediatric Oncology Group study.Cancer 1985; 56: 2640–2646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Valentino L, Moss T, Olson E, Wang H-J, Elshoff R. Shed tumor gangliosides and progression of human neuroblastoma.Blood 1990; 75:1564–1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Look AT, Hayes FA, Nitschke R, McWilliams NB, Green AA. Cellular DNA content as a predictor of response to chemotherapy in infants with unresectable neuroblastoma.N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Look AT, Hayes FA, Shuster JJ, Douglass EC, Castleberry RP, Brodeur GM. Clinical relevance of tumor cell ploidy and N-myc gene amlification in childhood neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study.J Clin Oncol 1991; 9 : 581–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Seeger RC, Brodeur GM, Sather Het al. Asociation of multiple copies of the Nmyc oncogene with rapid progression of heuroblastoma.N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1111–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nakagawara A, Sasazuki T, Akiyama Het al. N-myc oncogene and stage IV-S neuroblastoma: preliminary observations on 10 cases.Cancer 1990; 65 :1960–1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hayashi Y, Kanda N, Inaba Tet al. Cytogenetic findings and prognosis in neuroblastoma with emphasis on marker chromosome 1.Cancer 1989; 63: 126–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fong CT, Dracopoli NC, White PSet al. Loss of heterozygosity for the short arm of chromosome 1 in human neuroblastomas: correlation with N-myc amplification.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86 : 3753–3757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Favrot MC, Combaret V, Lasset C. CD44: a new prognostic marker for neuroblastoma :N Engl J Med 1993; 329 :1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bourhis J, Benard J, Hartmann Oet al. Correlation of MDR1 gene expression with chemotherapy in neuroblastoma.J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81:1401–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goldstein LJ, Fojo AT, Ueda Ket al. Expression of multidrug resistance, MDR1, gene in neuroblastoma.J Clin Oncol 1990; 8:128–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nakagawara A, Kadomatsu K, Sato SIet al. Inverse correlation between expression of multidrug resistance gene and N-myc oncogene in human neuroblastoma:Cancer Res 1990; 50 : 3043–3047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Favrot M, Combaret V, Goillot Eet al. Expression of P-glycoprotein restricted to normal cells in neuroblastoma biopsies.Br J Cancer 1991; 64: 233–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Norris MD, Bordow SB, Marshall GM, Haber PS, Haber M. Association between high levels of expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) gene and poor outcome in primary human neuroblastoma.N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim NW, Piatyszek MA, Prowse KRet al. Specific association of human telomerase activity with immortal cells and cancer.Science 1994; 266: 2011–2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hiyama E, Hiyama K, Tokoyama Tet al. Correlating telomerase activity levels with human neuroblastoma outcomes.Nature Med 1995; 31A: 249–255.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brodeur GM. Molecular basis for heterogeneity in human neuroblastoma.Eur J Cancer 1995; 31A: 505–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    La Quaglia MP, Kushner BH, Heller G, Bonilla MA, Lindsley KL, Cheung NK. Stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed at more than 1 year of age: gross total resection and clinical outcome.J Pediatr Surg 1994; 29:1162–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kiely EM. Radical surgery for abdominal neuroblastoma.Semin Surg Oncol 1993; 9: 489–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ogita S, Tokiwa K, Majima S. An evaluation of surgical treatment and chemotherapy of advanced neuroblastoma (stage III & IV) with special reference to proliferation kinetics of residual tumor.J Pediatr Surg 1985; 20:150–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Green AA, Hustu HO, Kumar M. Sequential cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin for induction of complete remission in children with disseminated neuroblastoma.Cancer 1981; 48: 2310–2317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hayes FA, Green AA, Casper Jet al. Clinical evaluation of sequentially scheduled cisplatin and VM26 in neuroblastoma: response and toxicity.Cancer 1981; 48 : 1715–1718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Evans AE, Baum E, Chard R. Do infants with stage IV-S neuroblastoma need treatment?Arch Dis Child 1981; 56: 271–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Halperin E. Neuroblastoma. In: Halperin E, Kun L, Constine L, Tarbell N (eds).Pediatric Radiation Oncology. New York : Raven Press, 1989 :134Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    August CS, Serota FT, Koch PA,et al. Treatment of advanced neuroblastoma with supralethal chemotherapy, radiation and allogeneic or autologous marrow reconstitution.J Clin Oncol 1984; 2: 609–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Strother D, Cantor A, Halperin Eet al. Treatment of Pediatric Oncology Group stage C neuroblastoma: a preliminary POG report (abstract).Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1993; 12 :1422.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hayes FA, Thompson E, Hvizdala Eet al. Chemotherapy as an alternative to laminectomy and radiation in the management of epidural tumor.J Pediatt 1984; 104:221–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Plantaz D, Ruble H, Michon Jet al.The treatment of neuroblastoma with intraspinal extension with chemotherapy followed by surgical removal of residual disease. A prospective study of 42 patients results of the NBL 90 study of the NBL 90 study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology.Cancer 1996; 78 (2): 311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nitschke R, Smith El, Shochat Set al. Localized neuroblastoma treated by surgery: a Pediatric Oncology Group study.J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1271–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RCet al. Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy.J Clin Oncol 1989; 7:236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stephenson SR, Cook BA, Mease ADet al. The prognostic significance of age and pattern of metastases in stage IV-S neuroblastoma.Cancer 1986; 58: 372–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shafford EA, Rogers DW, Pritehard. J. Advaneed neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multi-agent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM 26.J Clin Oncol 1984; 2: 742–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Graham-Pole J. Autologous marrow transplants in pediatric tumors; In: Champlin RE, Gale RP (eds).New strategies in bone marrow transplantation. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1991:413.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pinkerton CR, Pritchard J, DeKrsker Jet al.ENSG 1: randomized study of high dose melphelan in neuroblastoma. In : Dicke Ka, Spitzer G, Jagonnoth S, (eds).Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation. Houston : University of Texas Press, 1987 :401.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kletzel M, Abella E, Sandier Eet al. Thiotepa and cyclophosphamide with stem cell rescue for consolidation therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma : A phase I/II study of the pediatric bone marrow transplant consortium.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pratt CB, Stuart C, Santana VMet al. Phase I study of topotecan for pediatric patients with malignant solid tumor.J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 539–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hardgretinger R, Anderson K, Lang Pet al. A phase I study of human/mouse chimeric antiganglioside GD2 antibody ch 14.18 in patients with neuroblastoma.Eur J Cancer 1995; 31A: 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Villablanca JG, Khan AA, Avramis VIet al. Phase I trial of 13-cis retinoic acid in children with neuroblastoma following bone marrow transplantation.J Clin Oncol 1995; 13:894–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dorrfrancesco A, Deb G, Dominici Cet al. Effects of a single course of deferoxamine in neuroblastoma patients.Cancer Res 1990; 50: 4929–4931.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gaze MN, Wheldon TE, O’Donoghue A,et al. Multi-modality megatherapy with I meta-iodobenzylguanidine, high dose melphelan and total body irradiation with bone marrow rescue: feasibility study for a new strategy for advanced neuroblastoma.Eur J Cancer 1995; 31 A : 252–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nakagawara A, Zaizen Y, Ikeda Ket al. Different genomic and metabolic patterns between mass screening-postives and mass screening-negatives later-presenting neuroblastomas.Cancer 1991; 68: 2037–2044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Parkin DM, Stiller CA, Draper GJet al. International incidence of childhood cancer.International Journal of Cancer 1988; 42 (4): 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schultz KR, Ranade S, Neglia JP, Ravindranath Y. An Increased relative frequency of retinoblastoma at a rural regional hospital in Miraj, Maharashtra, India.Cancer 1993; 72:282–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Wayne State Univeristy School of MedicineChildren’s Hospital of MichiganDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations