The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 657–666 | Cite as

Diagnosis of neurotuberculosis

  • Neelam M. Wagle
  • Avinash K. Vaidya
Symposium: Tuberculosis in Children

Key Words

Neurotuberculosis Laboratory diagnosis ELISA 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Des-Prez R. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In: Beeson PB, McDermott W, Eds.Textbook of Mediane : Philadelphia, London, Toronto, WB Saunders Company 1975; 405–411.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patel BD, Desai AG, Mankodi NA et al. Evaluation of routine CSF examination in diagnosis and prognosis of TBM in children. Singh B et al. eds. Kapila CC, Dastur DK, In:Tuberculosis of Nervous System : Ind Acad of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. 1973; 191–194Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Din MU, Diju IU, Tabassum R et al. Free Sialic acid in CSF in the differential diagnosis of meningitis.Indian J Med Res 1981; 74:604–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith SM, Eng RK, Campos JM et al. D-Lactic acid measurements in diagnosis of bacterial infections.J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27:385–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sharma A, Dharkar SR, Dharkar RS et al. Isocitric dehydrogenase in the CSF in brain tumors and meningitis.Indian J Med Res 1980;72:485–560.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lending M, Solobody LB, Mestern J. CSF GOT and CSF LDH activity in children with neurological disorders.J Pediatr 1564; 65:415–421.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sharma KK, Lodha SK, Sareen PM et al. Serum fucose versus ESR in pulmonary tuberculosis.Indian J Med Res 1982; 75: 329–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crook A, Duncan H, Gutteridge B et al. Use of82Br in differential diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis.Br Med J 1960; 1: 704–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barucha PE, Bharucha EP, Decosta H. The82Br test in the diagnosis of TBM.Indian Pediatr 1980; 17: 65–68.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dave KN, Dave BN, Billimoria FR et al. Levels of CSF GABA in TBM and pyogenic meningitis in children.Indian J Gin Biochem 1986; 1:137–139.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kennedy DH, Fallon RJ. Tuberculous meningitis.JAMA 1979; 241:264–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andrus P, MacMohan HE. Use of volatile hydrocarbon in concentration of tubercule bacilli.Am Rev Tuberc 1924;9:99–106.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mohan R. Use of ether flotation techniques for concentration of AFB from CSF. M.D. Thesis, Bombay University, Bombay, 1984.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daginwala F. Annual Report of Sir H.N. Hosp. 1988–49.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takahashi Y. Specific serum agglutination of kaolin particles sensitized with tubercute phosphatide and clinical evaluation as a serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis.Am Rev Resp Dis 1962; 85: 708–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duboezy BO, White FC. Further studies with the direct latex agglutination test in tuberculosis.Am Rev Resp Dis 1969; 100: 364–371.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cole RV, Lazarus AW, Hedrick HG. Development and evaluation of simple latex agglutination test for diagnosis of tuberculosis.Appl Microbiol 1992; 24: 525–534.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sarnaik RM. An evaluation of kaolin agglutination test as serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis.Indian J Tuberc 1989; 36: 81–93.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wallace R, Diena BB, Greenburg et al. A study of tuberculosis antibodies by bentonite flocculation.Cm Med Assoc J 1966; 94:947–950.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parlett RC, Youmans GP. An evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a gel double diffusion test for tuberculosis.Am Rev Resp Dis 1959; 80: 153–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaplan MH, Chase MW. Antibody to mycobacteria in human tuberculosis (1) development of antibodies before and after antimicrobial therapy.J Infect Dis 1980; 142:825–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nassau E, Parsons ER, Johnson GD. The detection of antibodies toM. tuberculosis by microplate ELISA.Tubercule 1976; 57:67–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benjamin RG, Debanne SM, Ma Y et al. Evaluation of mycobacterial antigens in an ELISA for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.J Med Microbiol 1984; 18: 309–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grange JM, Gibson J, Batly A et al. The specificity of the humoral immune response to soluble mycobacterial antigens in tuberculosis.Tubercule 1980; 61: 153–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grange JM, Kardjito T. Serological tests for tuberculosis. Can the problem of low specificity be overcome ?Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1982; 24:108–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    KardjitoT, Handoyo I, Grange JM. Diagnosis of active tuberculosis by immunological methods (1) the effect of tuberculin reactivity and previous BCG vaccination on the antibody level determined by ELISA.Tubercle 1982; 63:269–272.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gracia-ortrgoza E, Gutierrez VA. Diagnostico de la tuberculosis pulmonar cronica porei Metodo deirnmunoensajo enzimatico (ELISA)Rev Latinoam Microbiol 1982; 24:193–194.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Samuel AM, Adiga RB. Detection of antibodies in sera of leprosy patients and contacts by ELISA.Japan J Leprosy 1984; 53: 32–35.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jagannath C, Sengupta DN, Bahadur P. Serology of tuberculosis II. Measurement of antibodies toM. tuberculosis by passive haemagglutination test in human tuberculosis.Tubercule 1983; 64:201–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kiran U, Shriniwas KR, Sharma A. Efficacy of three mycobacterlal antigens in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.Eur J Respir Dis 1985; (9) 66:187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Agarwal A, Moudgil KD. Enzyme immunoassay based study of IgG and IgM antibody response to antigens ofM. tuberculosis H37V in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.Indian J Tuberc 1988; 35:12–16.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    ELISA using M tuberculosis antigens and PPD for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.Chest 1985; 88:388–392.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kailash SB, Radin RC, Phair JP et al. Use of an ELISA technique in differential diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in humans.J Infect Dis 1983; 147: 523–530.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zeiss CR, Kalish SB, Erlich KS et al. IgG antibody of PPD by ELISA in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.Am Rev Resp Dis 1984; 130 (5): 845–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tandon A, Saxena RP, Saxena KC et al. Diagnostic potentialities of ELISA in tuberculosis using purified tuberculin antigen.Tubercule 1980; 61:87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gupta AK, Jamil Z, Srivastava UK et al. Antibodies to PPD in pulmonary tuberculosis and their correlation with PPD skin sensitivity.Indian J Med Res 1983; 78: 484–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pan X, Yong P, Weng X et al. Determination of anti PPD antibody by ELISA.Clin J Tuberc Resp Dis 1983; 6:68–70.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koshino T, Nishioka S, Fujimuza M et al. ELISA for IgG antibody to PPD of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.Kekkaku 1984; 59:621–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Balestrino EA, Daniel TM, Delatini MD et al. Serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Argentina by ELISA of IgG antibodies toM. tuberculosis antigen 5 and tuberculin purified derivative.Bull WHO 1984; 62:755–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Benjamin RC, Daniel TM. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis using ELISA of antibody toM. tuberculosis antigen 5.Am Rev Resp Dis 1982; 126:1013–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    May Wym, Daniel TM. ELISA usingM. tuberculosis antigen for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in China.Am Rev Resp Dis 1986; 134:1273–1275.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stroebel AB, Daniel TM, Lau JHK et al. Serologic diagnosis of bone and joint tuberculosis by ELISA.J Infect Dis 1982; 146:280–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reggiardo Z, Vazguez E, Schnaper L. ELISA for antibodies against mycobacterial glycolipids.J Immnol Methods 1980; 34:55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reggiardo Z, Vazquez E. Comparison of ELISA and haemagglutination test using mycobacterial glycolipids.J Clin Microbiol 1981; 13:1007–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Krambovitis E. Detection of antibodies toM. tuberculosis plasma membrane antigen by ELISA.J Med Microbiol 1986; 21:257–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Daniel TM, Demurillo GL, Sawyer JA et al. Field evaluation of ELISA for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.Am Rev Resp Dis 1986; 134: 662–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Coates ARM, Hewitt J, Allen BW et al. Antigenic diversity ofM. tuberculosis and M. bouis detected by means of monoclonal antibodiesLancet 1981; 2:167–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Daniel TM, Debanne SM. The serodiagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases by ELISA.Am Rev Resp Dis 1987; 135:1137–1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chaparas SD. Immunologic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.Indian J Tuben 1985;32:3–6.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Samuel AM, Kadival GV, Irani S et al. A sensible and specific method for diagnosis of TBM.Indian J Med Res 1963; 77: 752–757.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Samuel AM, Kadival GV, Ashtekar MD et al. Evaluation of tubercular antigen and antitubercular antibodies in pleural and ascitic effusions.Indian J Med Res 1984; 80:563–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gandhi BM, Bhargava DK, Irshad M et al. Enzyme linked protein A: ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies againstM tuberculosis in intestinal tuberculosis.Tuhercule 1986; 67:219–222.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kailash SB, Radin RC, Levitz D et al. The ELISA method for IgG antibody to PPD in CSF of patients with TBM.Ann Intem Med 1983; 99:630–633.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ashtekar MD, Dhalla AS, Mazarello TBMS et al. A study ofM. tuberculosis antigen and antibody in CSF and blood in TBM.Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1987; 45:29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kadival GV, Samuel AM, Virdi BS et al. RIA for tuberculous antigen.Indian J Med Res 1982; 75: 765–770.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bal V, Kamat RS, Kamat JR et al. ELISA for mycobacterial antigens.Indian J Med Res 1983; 78:477–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sada E, Ruiz-Palacicos GM, Lopez-Vidal Yeld. Detection of mycobacterial antigen in CSF of patients with TBM by immunosorbent assay.Lancet 1983; 2:651–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chandramukhi A, Allen PRJ, Keen M et al. Detection of mycobacterial antigen and antibodies in CSF of patients with TBM.J Med Microbiol 1985; 20:239–241.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Krambovitis E, McCllmurray MB, Lock PE et al. Rapid diagnosis of TBM by latex particle agglutination.Lancet 1964; 1: 1229–1231.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kadival GV, Samuel AM, Mazarelo TBMS et al. RIA for detectingM. tuberculosis antigen in CSF of patients with TBM.J Infect Dis 1987; 155: 608–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kadival GV, Mazarelo TBMS, Chaparas SD. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA in detection of antigen in TBM CSF.J Clin Micmbiol 1986; 23:901–904.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ivanyi JE, Krambovitis E, Keen M. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody TB 72 based serological test for tuberculosis.Clin Exp Immunol 1983; 54:337–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Engers HD, Abe M, Bloom BR et al. Results of WHO sponsored workshop on monoclonal antibodies to M. Leprae.Infect Immun 1985; 48:603–605.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ivanyi J, Morris JA, Keen M. Studies with monoclonal antibodies to mycobacteria. In:Monoclonal Antibodies against Bacteria. New York; Academic Press Inc. Vol 1. 1985; 59.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Young DB, Kent L, Ress A et al. Immunological activity of 38KD protein purified fromM. tuberculosis.Infect Immun 1986; 54 LD: 177–183.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kadival GV, Chaparas SD. Production, characterization and species specificity of 5 monoclonal antibodies toM. tuberculosis.J Clin Micmbiol 1987; 25:76–80.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Coates ARM, Hewitt J, Allen et al. Antigenic diversity ofM tuberculosis and M. Bovis detected by means of monoclonal antibodies.Lancet 1981; 2:167–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Minden P, Houghten RA, Spear JR et al. Chemically synthesized peptide which elicits humoral and cellular immune response to mycobacterial antigens.Infect Immun 1986; 53:560–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Young RA, Bloom BR, Grosskinsky MC et al. Dissection ofM. tuberculosis antigens using recombinant DNA.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82:2583–2587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neelam M. Wagle
    • 1
  • Avinash K. Vaidya
    • 1
  1. 1.Microbiology Section, Aditya Pediatric Research LaboratoryBai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for ChildrenBombay

Personalised recommendations