Lettere al Nuovo Cimento (1971-1985)

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 65–73 | Cite as

The chemistry of fractionally charged atoms

  • K. S. Lackner
  • G. Zweig


An effective search for free quarks in matter requires understanding the chemistry of atoms with fractionally charged nuclei. Their chemistry is determined by interpolation in terms of the known chemistry of neutral atoms and ions. Electronegativities and ionic crystal radii of quark atoms are computed.


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  1. (1).
    For the remainder of this paper «quark» will refer to the first formed stable fractionally-charged particles.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    D. D. Clayton:Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis (New York, N. Y., 1968).Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Since the power of an atom to attract electrons depends somewhat upon its valence state, it is not strictly speaking an invariant atomic property. For example, the electron attracting ability of asp n hybrid orbital (n=2, ...) centered on carbon and directed toward hydrogen increases as the percentage ofs-wave in the orbital increases in the series ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2).Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    L. Pauling:The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition (Ithaca, N. Y., 1960).Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    J. E. Huheey:Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition (New York, N. Y., 1978).Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    R. S. Mulliken:J. Chem. Phys.,2, 782 (1934).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    This always proves possible except when the nuclear chargeZ is 1/2. Then a theoretical estimate can be made.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    The chemical relationship between elements in other corresponding columns,e.g. V B and V A, in not close because of the complexd-shell structure of elements in the remaining B columns.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    L. H. Ahrens:Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,2, 155 (1952);3, 1 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Lackner
    • 1
  • G. Zweig
    • 1
  1. 1.California Institute of TechnologyPasadena

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