Brush cytology: An adjunct to diagnostic upper GI endoscopy
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Endoscopic brush cytology (EBC) was performed in antral and duodenal brushings of children subjected to upper GI endoscopy for the detection of H. pylori (Hp) and trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (Glt) in addition to routine endoscopic grasp biopsy (EGB). It was hospital based prospective study. EBC was performed in children subjected to upper GI endoscopy with a sheathed cytology brush. Mucosal brushings were collected from antrum, body of the stomach and second or third part of duodenum by gently rubbing the surface of the brush with the mucosal wall in all the directions, brush withdrawn and brushings performed on a glass slide. The smears were placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and later examined for Glt and Hp using Giemsa and Hematoxylin & Eosin stain. EGB was taken from antrum, body of the stomach and duodenum from sites other than those used for brushings. One hundred and seventy children between 1–13 years (median age = 5 years) were subjected to upper GI endoscopy for malabsorption (n= 94), recurrent abdominal pain (n= 49), failure to thrive (n= 16) and recurrent vomiting / regurgitation (n= 11) and EBC was performed in addition to routine EGB. Thirty five children (20.4%) were colonized by Hp, 14 (8.2%) were detected to have Glt and in 6 cases (3.5 %) both Hp as well as Glt were detected. Out of 41 cases colonized by Hp, 24 cases (58.5 %) were detected by EGB and 27 cases (65.8%) were detected by EBC. Out of 20 children in whom Glt were detected from their duodenum, the detection was by EBG in 12 cases (60%) and by EBC in as many as 19 cases (95%).Comparison of EGB and EBC suggested that detection rates with EBC were higher than EGB. Detection by EBC was significantly higher for Glt than Hp. There were no complications attributed to EBC and procedure time for endoscopy was not significantly prolonged. On the contrary, detection of Hp and particularly Glt in higher proportion of cases with the help of EBC was helpful in their appropriate management. Our results suggest that EBC is a safe and useful tool to enhance the value of diagnostic endoscopic procedure when used in combination with routine EGB.
Key wordsHelicobacter pylori Giardia lamblia Brush cytology Endoscopy
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