Journal of Coatings Technology

, Volume 70, Issue 883, pp 47–53 | Cite as

N,N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) fatty amide as novel environmentally friendly crosslinking agent for acid functional acrylic copolymer resin

  • Patel Pulin N.
  • D. A. Raval
  • V. M. Mannari
Technical Articles


N,N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) fatty amide (HAFA) derived from dehydrated castor oil (DCO) has been employed as a curing agent for a carboxylic acid functional acrylic resin (AAR). Coating compositions with a varying AAR/HAFA ratio have been prepared and their various film properties have been studied and compared with the conventional butylated melamine formaldehyde (MF) based systems. The study reveals that HAFA can be used successfully as a crosslinking agent for AAR in baking systems. In addition to other technical advantages, the use of HAFA is environmentally friendly as no toxic volatiles are evolved during curing reaction, unlike in MF-cured systems.


Differential Scan Calorimetry Crosslinking Agent Maleic Anhydride Differential Scan Calorimetry Scan Fatty Amide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1).
    Lomax, J. and Swift, G., “β-Hydroxyalkylamides, Low Polluting Crosslinkers for Carboxyl Containing Polymers,”Journal of Coatings Technology,50, No. 643, 49 (1978).Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Mercurio, A.,Proc. 16th Intl. Cont. Org. Coat. Sci. Tech., p. 235, Athens, Greece, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    IS 197 (1996), Methods of Sampling and Testing for Varnishes and Lacquers (first revision, 1981), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Paint and Surface Coatings, Theory and Practice, Lambourne, R. (Ed.), Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, Ch. 16, p. 605–619, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Solomon, D.H.,J. Oil & Colour Chemists’ Assn., 46, 172 (1963).Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Fuch, O. and Suhr, H.H.,Solvent Nonsolvent for Polymers, Polymers Handbook, 2nd Edition, (Hoechst AG/Frankfurt(Main) Germany, Branddrup, J. and Immergut, E.H. (Eds.), p. IV241 – IV 263, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Dennis, D.S., Lyons, C.E., and Spiekerman, D.R., “Coatings from Styrene-Maleic Copolymers, Thermosetting,”Official Digest,37, 378 (1965).Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Verghese, T.M. and Krishnan, V.,J. Colour Society, (October–December), 29, 1 (1990).Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Gast, L.E., Schneider, W.J., McManis, G.E., and Cowan, J.C.,J. Am. Oil & Chemists’ Soc., 46, 390 (1969).Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Gast, L.E., Schneider, W.J., and Cowan, J.C., ibid, 534 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Gast, L.E., Schneider, W.J., and Cowan, J.C., ibid, 418 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Schneider, W.J., McManis, G.E., Swain, E.W., and Gast, J.E., “Polyesteramides from Linseed and Soybeam Oils for Protective Coatings-Color Stability of Diisocyanate-Modified Polymers,”Journal of Paint Technology,42, 493 (1970).Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Brydson, J.A.,Plastics Materials, 5th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, Ch. 26, p. 712, 1989.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Konstandt, F.,Organic Coatings: Properties and Evaluation, Chemical Pub. Co., New York, Ch. 1, p. 16–22, 1985.Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    Brydson, J.A.,Plastics Materials, 5th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, Ch. 25, p. 662, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patel Pulin N.
    • 1
  • D. A. Raval
    • 1
  • V. M. Mannari
    • 2
  1. 1.V.P. & R.P.T.P. Science CollegeIndia
  2. 2.ICI (India) Ltd.India

Personalised recommendations