, Volume 168, Supplement 1, pp 1069–1074 | Cite as

Interleukin-2 therapy for human cancer

  • Q. G. C. M. van Hoesel
Biological Parameters In Lung Cancer


The concept of immunotherapy is evolving from nonspecific, haphazard stimulation of the immune apparatus to more specific and controlled manipulation of the immune system. IL-2 gives the opportunity to exert influence on the cellular immune system. Why LAK cells are able to lyse tumor cells and leave normal cells intact is not known. How LAK cells behave after reinfusion is not known; are they able to migrate to tumor sites? Can improvements be made in scheduling in order to decrease toxicity and to enhance efficacy? But first of all, the question arises whether the tremendous efforts required by adoptive transfer, in terms of toxicity, logistics, and money, are outweighed by the therapeutic results. For clinical practice inside the frontier of oncology, continuous infusion of IL-2 at an intermediate dose is a quite attractive option in finding a balance between efforts and results.

Key words

Interleukin-2 therapy Immune apparatus Lymphokine-activated killer cells Human cancer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Coley WB (1893) Treatment of malignant tumors by repeated inoculations of eryspielas with a report of 10 cases. Med Rec 43:60Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shalaby MR, Pennica D, Palladino MA (1986) An overview of the history and biologic properties of tumor necrosis factor. Springer Semin Immunopathol 9:33–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O’Garra A, Umland S, De France T, Christiansen J (1988) B-cell factors’ are pleiotropic. Immunology Today 9:45–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leonard WJ, Depper JM, Robb RJ, Waldmann TA, Greene WC (1983) Characterization of the human receptor for T-cell growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:6957–6961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sharon M, Klausner RD, Cullen BR, Chizzonite R, Leonard WJ (1986) Novel Interleukin-2 receptor subunit detected by cross-linking under high-affinity conditions. Science 234:859–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith KA (1988) The bimolecular structure of the interleukin 2 receptor. Immunology Today 9:36–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stern JB, Smith KA (1986) Interleukin-2 induction of T-cell Gl progression and c-myb expression. Science 233:203–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kasahara T, Hooks JJ, Dougherty SF, Oppenheim JJ (1983) Interleukin-2 mediated immune interferon (IFN-gamma) production by human T-cells in T-cell subsets. J Immunol 130:1784–1789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kornfeld H, Berman JS, Beer DJ, Center DM (1985) Induction of human T lymphocyte motility by interleukin-2. J Immunol 134:3887–3890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lotze MT, Frana LW, Sharrow SO, Robb RJ, Rosenberg SA (1985) In vivo administration of purified human interleukin-2. J Immunol 134:157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grimm EA, Mazumder A, Zhang HZ, Rosenberg SA (1982) Lympholine-activated killer cell phenomenon. J Exp Med 155:1823–1841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mulé JJ, Rosenberg SA (1989) Immunotherapy with lymphokine combinations. In: De Vita V, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Important advances in oncology 1989. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Company, pp 99–126Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosenberg SA (1988) Immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer using interleukin-2 alone or in combination with lymphokine activated killer cells. In: De Vita V, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Important advances in oncology 1988 Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Company, pp 213–257Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosenstein M, Ettinghausen SE, Rosenberg SA (1986) Extravasation of intravascular fluid mediated by the systemic administration of recombinant interleukin-2. J Immunol 137:1735–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    West WH, Taner KW, Yannel JR, Marshall GD, Orr DW, Thurman GB, Oldham GK (1987) Constant-infusion recombinant interleukin-2 in adoptive immunotherapy of advanced cancer. N Engl J Med 316:898–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Muul LM, Chang AE, et al (1987) A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone. N Engl J Med 316:889–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Paciucci PA, Holland JF, Glidewell O, Odchimar R (1989) Recombinant IL-2 by continuous infusion and adoptive transfer of recombinant Interleukin-2-activated cells in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol 7:869–878PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Q. G. C. M. van Hoesel
    • 1
  1. 1.Academic Hospital NÿmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations