, Volume 28, Issue 1–2, pp 187–208 | Cite as

Cyclic deformation behaviour of austenitic steels at ambient and elevated temperatures

  • Th. Nebel
  • D. Eifler


The aim of the present investigation is to characterise cyclic deformation behaviour and plasticity-induced martensite formation of metastable austenitic stainless steels at ambient and elevated temperatures, taking into account the influence of the alloying elements titanium and niobium. Titanium and niobium are ferrite-stabilising elements which influence the ferrite crystallisation. Furthermore, They form carbides and/or carbonitrides and thus limit the austenite-stabilising effect of carbon and nitrogen. Several specimen batches of titanium and niobium alloyed austenite and of a pure Cr-Ni-steel for comparison were tested under stress and total strain control at a frequency of 5 Hz and triangular load-time waveforms. Stress-strain-hysteresis and temperature measurements were used at ambient temperature to characterise cyclic deformation behaviour. Plasticity-induced martensite content was detected with non-destructive magnetic measuring techniques. The experiments yield characteristic cyclic deformation curves and corresponding magnetic signals according to the actual fatigue state and the amount of martensite. Fatigue behaviour of X6CrNiTil810 (AISI 321), X10CrNiCb189 (AISI 348) and X5CrNi1810 (AISI 304) is characterised by cyclic hardening and softening effects which are strongly influenced by specific loading conditions. Martensite formation varies with the composition, loading conditions, temperature and number of cycles.


Fatigue cyclic deformation behaviour metastable austenitic steel plasticity-induced martensite 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bassler H-J, Dobmann G, Lang M, Eifler D 1997 Characterization of the fatigue behaviour of austenitic steel using HTSL-Squid.23th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, San Diego, USA, pp 1597–1604Google Scholar
  2. Bayerlein M, Christ H-J, Mughrabi H 1989 Plasticity induced martensitic transformation during cyclic deformation of AISI 304L stainless steel,Mater. Sci. Eng. A114: L11-L16Google Scholar
  3. Dobmann G, Lang M, Eifler D, Bassler H-J 2001 On-line Fatigue Monitoring of Austenitic Stainless Steel Using a GMR-Sensor.6th Int. Workshop on Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (Budapest: IOS Press) pp 259–266Google Scholar
  4. Eckstein H-J 1990 KorrosionsbestÄndige StÄhle.Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie (Leipzig) pp 90–98Google Scholar
  5. Eifler D 1997 Fatigue behaviour of steel at ambient and elevated temperatures. InRisk based assessment of industrial components and plants — vol. II. QUNEST and Q NET (Madras: Indian Institute of Technology) pp 1–17Google Scholar
  6. Eifler D 2000 Fatigue behaviour of ferritic and austenitic steels at elevated temperatures.Materials ageing and life management (ed.) Sunil Sachdev (Kalpakkam: Allied Publishers) vol. 1 pp 17–26Google Scholar
  7. Harig H, Dengel D 1980 Estimation of the fatigue limit by progressively-increasing load tests,Fatig.Eng. Mater. Struct. 3: pp 113–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lang M, Johnson J, Schreiber J, Dobmann G, Bassler H J, Eifler D, Ehrlich R, Gampe U 2000 Cyclic deformation behaviour of AISI 321 austenitic steel and its characterization by means of HTC-SQUID.Nucl. Eng. Design 198: pp 185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nebel T, Martin U, Eifler D 2001 Wechselverformungsverhalten metastabiler austenitischer StÄhle.HTM HÄrterei-Technische Mitteilungen, Zeitschrift für WÄrmebehandlung und Werkstofftechnik (München: Carl Hanser Verlag) HTM 56, pp 314.320Google Scholar
  10. Olsen G B, Cohen M 1975 Kinetics of strain induced martensite nucleation.Metall. Trans. A6: 791–795Google Scholar
  11. Sandhya R, Bhanu Sankara Rao K, Mannan S L, Devanathan R 2001 Substructural recovery in a cold worked Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel during high temperature low cycle fatigue.Int. J. Fatig. 23: 789–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Srinivasan V S, Valsan M, Sandhya R, Bhanu Sankara Rao K, Mannan S L, Sastry D H 1999 High temperature time-dependent low cycle fatigue behaviour of a 316L(N) stainless steel.Int. J. Fatig. 21: 11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Th. Nebel
    • 1
  • D. Eifler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Materials ScienceUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany

Personalised recommendations