Advertisement

Practical Failure Analysis

, Volume 2, Issue 6, pp 85–90 | Cite as

Common features of fretting-fatigue cracking in steels

  • P. C. Chan
  • J. C. Thornley
Peer Reviewed Articles

Abstract

Fretting can occur when repeated loading on a structure or part causes repetitive relative movement at contacting metallic surfaces. The fretting process may cause local metal loss and impact the initiation and/or propagation of fatigue cracks. There are some features of fretting-fatigue cracking that are unique. Several of these features are illustrated in three case histories described in this paper: the failure of a splined papermaking refiner shaft, the failure of two coal-pulverizer shafts, and the cracking of a crankshaft flange from a ship’s engine. Fretting fatigue usually results in recognizable damage to at least one of the contacting surfaces. The fretted areas are roughened and, in steel, are usually decorated with reddishbrown deposits. Cracks may be initiated in the damaged region but are located close to the boundary between the damaged areas. Cracking normally starts at an angle of less than 90° to the surface. The geometric stress concentrations present on the component may be overridden because of fretting, and cracks may initiate on previously smooth surfaces. Some cracks may initiate and grow to only a shallow depth before ceasing propagation.

Keywords

fatigue cracking fretting nonpropagating cracks shafts steel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R.B. Waterhouse:Fretting Fatigue, 1st ed., R.B. Waterhouse, Ed., Applied Science Publishers, Barking, Essex, England, 1981, pp. 203–19.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Juuma: “Torshional Fretting Fatigue Strength of a Shrink-Fitted Shaft with a Grooved Hub,”Tribol. Int., 2000,33, pp. 537–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F.R. Hutchins:Failure Analysis: The British Engine Technical Reports, 1st ed., F.R. Hutchins and P.M. Unterweiser, Ed., American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1981, p. 454.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.M. Spink: “Fretting Fatigue of a 2 1/2% NiCrMoV Low Pressure Turbine Shaft Steel: The Effect of Different Contact Pad Materials and of Variable Slip Amplitude,”Wear, 1990,136, pp. 281–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Yang and S. Mall: “On Crack Initiation Mechanisms in Fretting Fatigue,”J. Appl. Mech. (Trans. ASME), 2001,68, pp. 76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Lamacq, M.C. Dubourg, and L. Vincent: “A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Initial Growth Angles and Sites of Fretting Fatigue Cracks,”Tribol. Int., 1997,30(6), pp. 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Dobromirski and I. Smith: “A Stress Analysis of a Shaft with a Press-Fitted Hub Subjected to Cyclic Axial Loading,”Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1986,28(1), pp. 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Kondoh and Y. Mutoh: “Fretting Fatigue: Current Technology and Practices,” ASTM STP 1367, D.W. Hoeppner, V. Chandrasekaran, and C.B. Elliot, Ed., ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 282–92.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.J. Fellows, D. Nowell, and D.A. Hills: “On the Initiation of Fretting Fatigue Cracks,”Wear, 1997,205, pp. 120–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.D. Costa, J.M. Ferreira, and A.L. Ramalho: “Fatigue and Fretting Fatigue of Ion-Nitrided 34CrNiMo6 Steel,”Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech., 2001,35, pp. 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.X. Li, Y. Sun, and T. Bell: “Factors Influencing Fretting Fatigue Properties of Plasma-Nitrided Low Alloy Steel,”Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2000,292, pp. 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International - The Materials Information Society 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. C. Chan
    • 1
  • J. C. Thornley
    • 1
  1. 1.RPCFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations