Bulletin of Materials Science

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 599–607 | Cite as

Evaluation of a.c. conductivity of rubber ferrite composites from dielectric measurements

  • S. Sindhu
  • M. R. Anantharaman
  • Bindu P. Thampi
  • K. A. Malini
  • Philip Kurian


The effect of frequency, composition and temperature on the a.c. electrical conductivity were studied for the ceramic, Ni1−xZnxFe2O4, as well as the filler (Ni1−xZnxFe2O4) incorporated rubber ferrite composites (RFCs). Ni1−xZnxFe2O4 (where) (bix)varies from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.2 were prepared by usual ceramic techniques. They were then incorporated into a butyl rubber matrix according to a specific recipe. The a.c. electrical conductivity (σa.c) calculations were carried out by using the data available from dielectric measurements and by employing a simple relationship. The a.c. conductivity values were found to be of the order of 10−3 S/m. Analysis of the results shows that σa.c. increases with increase of frequency and the change is same for both ceramic Ni1−xZnxFe2O4 and RFCs. σa.c increases initially with the increase of zinc content and then decreases with increase of zinc. Same behaviour is observed for RFCs too. The dependence of σa.c on the volume fraction of the magnetic filler was also studied and it was found that the a.c. conductivity of RFCs increases with increase of volume fraction of the magnetic filler. Temperature dependence of conductivity was studied for both ceramic and rubber ferrite composites. Conductivity shows a linear dependence with temperature in the case of ceramic samples.


Rubber ferrite composites a.c. electrical conductivity mixed ferrites electrical properties magnetic materials polymer magnets 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdeen A M 1998J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 185 199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed M A and Elhiti M A 1995J. Phys. III 5 775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed M A, Elhiti M A, El Nimr M K and Amer M A 1996J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 152 391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anantharaman M R, Jagatheesan S, Sindhu S, Malini K A, Chinnasamy C N, Narayanasamy A, Kurian P and Vasudevan K 1998Plastics, rubber and composites — Processing and applications 27 77Google Scholar
  5. Anantharaman M R, Sindhu S, Jagatheesan S, Malini K A and Kurian P 1999J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32 1801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anantharaman M R, Malini K A, Sindhu S, Mohammed E M, Date S K, Kulkarni S D, Joy P A and Philip Kurian 2001Bull. Mater. Sci. 24 623Google Scholar
  7. Andrej ŽVnidaršiě and Miha Drofenik 1999J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82 359Google Scholar
  8. Brockman F G and White R P 1971J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54 183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandra Prakash Rana and Baijal J S 1985J. Less Common Metals 106 257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elhiti M A 1994J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 136 138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elhiti M A 1996J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 164 187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elhiti M A, Ahmed M A, Mosaad M M and Attia S M 1995J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 150 399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goswami A 1996Thin film fundamentals (New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.)Google Scholar
  14. Jankowski S 1988J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71 c-176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim S S, Jo S B, Gueon K I, Kim K K and Churn K S 1991IEEE Trans. Magn. 27 5462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koops C G 1951Phys. Rev. 83 121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kulikowski J 1984J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 41 56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mirtaheri S A, Yin J, Seki H, Mizumoto T and Naito Y 1989Trans. IEICE E-72 1447Google Scholar
  19. Pal M, Brahma P and Chakravorty D 1994J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 63 3356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pal M, Brahma P and Chakravorty D 1996J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 152 370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Samokhvalov A A and Rustamov A G 1964Sov. Phys. Solid State 6 749Google Scholar
  22. Shaikh A M, Bellad S S and Chougule B K 1999J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 195 384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stoyan I Ganchev, Jaybhattacharyya, Sasan Bakhtiari, Nasser Qaddoumi, Deborah Brandenburg and Reza Zoughi 1994IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Technol. 42 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smit J and Wijn H P J 1959Ferrites (Eindhoven: Philips Technical Library)Google Scholar
  25. Sung-Soo Kim, Dae-Hee Han and Sung-Baeg Cho 1994IEEE Trans. Magn. 30 4554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Terje A Skotheim 1986Handbook of conducting polymers (New York, USA: Marcel Dekker Inc.) Vols I and IIGoogle Scholar
  27. Yootarou Yamazaki and Minuru Satou 1973Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 12 998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yoshiyuki Naito, Jifang Yin and Tetsuya Mizumoto 1998Electron. & Commun. Jap. 71 77Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Sindhu
    • 1
  • M. R. Anantharaman
    • 1
  • Bindu P. Thampi
    • 1
  • K. A. Malini
    • 1
  • Philip Kurian
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsCochin University of Science and TechnologyCochinIndia
  2. 2.Department of Polymer Science and Rubber TechnologyCochin University of Science and TechnologyCochinIndia

Personalised recommendations