Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 383–412 | Cite as

The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: Recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition

  • Peter Duesberg
  • Claus Koehnlein
  • David Rasnick


In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7–9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1–4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition, why they manifest in drug- and malnutrition-specific diseases, and why they are not self-limiting via anti-viral immunity. The hypothesis predicts AIDS prevention by adequate nutrition and abstaining from drugs, and even cures by treating AIDS diseases with proven medications.


AIDS not contagious AIDS not immunogenic drug-free HIV survivors HIV-free AIDS mortality on anti-HIV drugs non-exponential AIDS epidemics non-random US/European AIDS pediatric drug-AIDS random African AIDS recreational drug-AIDS 

Abbreviations used


US Centers for Disease Control


US National Institutes of Health


US Food and Drug Administration


World Health Organization


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abouya Y L, Beaumel A, Lucas S, Dago-Akribi A, Coulibaly G, N’Dhatz M, Konan J B, Yapi A and De Cock K M 1992Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. An uncommon cause of death in African patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome;Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145 617–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Achard C, Bernard H and Gagneux C 1909 Action de la morphine sur les proprietes leucocytaires; leuco-diagnostic du morphinisme;Bull. Mem. Soc. Med. Hopitaux Paris 28 3rd Series 958–966Google Scholar
  3. Adams J 1989AIDS: The HIV myth (New York: St. Martin’s Press)Google Scholar
  4. Alcabes P, Schoenbaum E E and Klein R S 1993 Correlates of the rate of decline of CD4+ lymphocytes among injection drug users infected with the human immunodeficiency virus;Am. J. Epidemiol. 137 989–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Altman L 2001a The AIDS questions that linger;New York Times, New York, January 30, p. F1Google Scholar
  6. Altman L 2001b US Panel seeks Changes in Treatment of AIDS Virus;New York Times, New York, February 4, p. 16Google Scholar
  7. Altman L 2001c US warns doctors to limit use of anti-HIV drug;New York Times, New York, January 5, p. A12Google Scholar
  8. Altman L K 1984 Researchers believe AIDS virus is found;New York Times, New York, April 24, p. C1, C3Google Scholar
  9. Altman L K 2002 Many Americans with HIV don’t know it or don’t seek care study shows;New York Times, New York, February 26, p. A20Google Scholar
  10. Anand R, Reed C, Forlenza S, Siegal F, Cheung T and Moore J 1987 Non-cytocidal natural variants of human immunodeficiency virus isolated from AIDS patients with neurological disorders;Lancet 2 234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson R M 1996 The spread of HIV and sexual mixing patterns; inAIDS in the World II (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp 71–86Google Scholar
  12. Anonymous 1999 Rapid disease progression in HIV-1 perinatally infected children born to mothers receiving zidovudine monotherapy during pregnancy. The Italian register for HIV Infection in Children;Aids 13 927–933Google Scholar
  13. Archer C B, Spittle M F and Smith N P 1989 Kaposi’s sarcoma in a homosexual — 10 years on;Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 14 233–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Archibald C P, Schechter M T, Le T N, Craib K J P, Montaner J S G and O’Shaughnessy M V 1992 Evidence for a sexually transmitted cofactor for AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma in a cohort of homosexual men;Epidemiology 3 203–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ascher M S, Sheppard H W, Winkelstein W Jr and Vittinghoff E 1993a Does drug use cause AIDS?;Nature (London) 362 103–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ascher M S, Sheppard H W, Winkelstein W Jr and Vittinghoff E 1993b Aetiology of AIDS;Lancet 341 1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ascher M S, Sheppard H W and Winkelstein W Jr 1995 AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma (letter);Science 267 1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Associated Press 2001 Delaying HIV drugs may be OK;New York Times, New York, November 27Google Scholar
  19. Ayers K M 1988 Preclinical Toxicology of Zidovudine;Am. J. Med. (Suppl. 2A) 85 186–188Google Scholar
  20. Bacellar H, Munoz A, Miller E N, Cohen B A, Besley D, Selnes O A, Becker J T and McArthur J C 1994 Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-1-related neurologic diseases: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study 1985–1992;Neurology 44 1892–1900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann J C, Rey F, Nugeyre M T, Chamaret S, Gruest C, Dauget C, Axler-Blin C, Vezinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W and Montagnier L 1983 Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS);Science 220 868–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bayley A C 1984 Aggressive Kaposi’s sarcoma in Zambia, 1983;Lancet 1 1318–1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beral V, Peterman T A, Berkelman R L and Jaffe H W 1990 Kaposi’s sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection?;Lancet 335 123–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blanche S, Rouzioux C, Moscato M L G, Veber F, Mayaux M J, Jacomet C, Tricoire J, Deville A, Vial M, Firtion G, de Crepy A, Douard D, Robin M, Courpotin C, Ciran-Vineron N, Le Deist F, Griscelli C and the HIV Infection in New-borns French Collaborative Study Group 1989 A prospective study of infants born to women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1;N. Engl. J. Med. 320 1643–1648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blanche S, Tardieu M, Rustin P, Slama A, Barret B, Firtion G, Ciraru-Vigneron N, Lacroix C, Rouzioux C, Mandelbrot L, Desguerre I, Rotig A, Mayaux M J and Delfraissy J F 1999 Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction and perinatal exposure to antiretroviral nucleoside analogues;Lancet 354 1084–1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blattner W A, Gallo R C and Temin H M 1988 HIV causes AIDS;Science 241 514–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Botnick M R, Heath K V, Cornelisse P G, Strathdee S A, Martindale S L and Hogg R S 2002 Correlates of suicide attempts in an open cohort of young men who have sex with men;Can. J. Public Health 93 59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Braeu N, Leaf H L, Wieczorck R L and Margolis D M 1997 Severe hepatitis in three AIDS patients treated with Indinavir;Lancet 349 924–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brandt A M 1988 AIDS in historical perspective: Four lessons from the history of sexually transmitted diseases;Am. J. Public Health 78 367–3 71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bregman D J and Langmuir A D 1990 Farr’s law applied to AIDS projections;J. Am. Med. Assoc. 263 50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brinkman K, Smeitink J A, Romijn J A and Reiss P 1999 Mitochondrial toxicity induced by nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is a key factor in the pathogenesis of antiretroviral-therapy-related lipodystrophy;Lancet 354 1112–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bull S S, Piper P and Rietmeijer C 2002 Men who have sex with men and also inject drugs-profiles of risk related to the synergy of sex and drug injection behaviors;J. Homosex 42 31–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cairns J 1978Cancer: science and society (San Francisco: W H Freeman)Google Scholar
  34. Cairns J 1997Matters of life and death; perspectives on public health, molecular biology, cancer and the prospects for the human race (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press)Google Scholar
  35. Cao Y, Quin L, Zhang L, Safrit J and Ho D D 1995 Virologic and Immunologic Characterization of Long-Term Survivors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection;N. Engl. J. Med. 332 201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carr A, Miller J, Law M and Cooper D A 2000 A syndrome of lipoatrophy, lactic acidaemia and liver failure dysfunction with HIV nucleoside analogue therapy: contribution to protease inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy syndrome;Aids 14 F25-F32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carr A, Morey A, Mallon P, Williams D and Thorburn D R 2001 Fatal portal hypertension, liver failure, and mitochondrial dysfunction after HIV-1 nucleoside analogue-induced hepatitis and lactic acidaemia;Lancet 357 1412–1414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Centers for Disease Control 1981a Koposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men — New York city and California;Morb. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 30 305–308Google Scholar
  39. Centers for Disease Control 1981b Update on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS);Morb. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 31 507–514Google Scholar
  40. Centers for Disease Control 1985 Revision of the case definition of AIDS for national reporting — United States;Morb. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 34 373–375Google Scholar
  41. Centers for Disease Control (ed.) 1986Reports on AIDS published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, June 1981 through February 1986 (US Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA)Google Scholar
  42. Centers for Disease Control 1987 Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome;Jama 258 1143–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Centers for Disease Control 1992 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults;Morb. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 41 (No. RR17) 1–19Google Scholar
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997 US HIV and AIDS cases reported through December 1997;Year-end Edition 9 1–43Google Scholar
  45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2001 US HIV and AIDS cases reported through December 2001;HIV/AIDS Surveillance Rep. 13 1–44Google Scholar
  46. Cheakalos C and Rosza L 2002 Positive Approach;People, 4 March, 95–96Google Scholar
  47. Cherry M 2000 Mbeki gives AIDS scientists the cold shoulder;Nature (London) 406 113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Christensen D 2000 Taking a break; Can interrupting their treatment benefit HIV-infected people?;Sci. News 157 248–249Google Scholar
  49. Clark S J, Saag M S, Decker W D, Campbell-Hill S, Roberson J L, Veldkamp P J, Kappes J C, Hahn B H and Shaw G M 1991 High titers of cytopathic virus in plasma of patients with symptomatic primary HIV-infection;N. Engl. J. Med. 324 954–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Clinton W and The White House 1996The National Drug Control Strategy (Washington DC: The White House)Google Scholar
  51. Coffin J, Haase A, Levy J A, Montagnier L, Oroszlan S, Teich N, Temin H, Varmus H, Vogt P and Weiss R 1986 Human immunodeficiency viruses;Science 232 697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cohen J 1993 HHS: Gallo guilty of misconduct;Science 259 168–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cohen J 1994 The Duesberg Phenomenon;Science 266 1642–1649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cohen J 2003 HIV/AIDS. Vaccine results lose significance under scrutiny;Science 299 1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cohen S S 1987 Antiretroviral therapy for AIDS;N. Engl. J. Med. 317 629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Colebunders R, Mann J, Francis H, Bila K, Izaley L, Kakonde N, Kabasele K, Ifoto L, Nzilambi N, Quinn T, van der Groen G, Curran J, Vercauten B and Piot P 1987 Evaluation of a clinical case definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa;Lancet 1 492–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Colfax G N, Mansergh G, Guzman R, Vittinghoff E, Marks G, Rader M and Buchbinder S 2001 Drug use and sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men who attend circuit parties: a venue-based comparison;J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. 28 373–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Connor E M, Sperling R S, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O’Sullivan M J, VanDyke R, Bey M, Shearer W, Jacobson R L, Jimenez E, O’Neill E, Bazin B, Delfraissy J-F, Culnane M, Coombs R, Elkins M, Moye J, Stratton P, Balsley J and Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group 1994 Reduction of Maternal-Infant Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 With Zidovudine Treatment;N. Engl. J. Med. 331 1173–1180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Costello R B (ed.) 1995Webster’s College Dictionary (New York: Random House)Google Scholar
  60. Craib K J, Weber A C, Cornelisse P G, Martindale S L, Miller M L, Schechter M T, Strathdee S A, Schilder A and Hogg R S 2000 Comparison of sexual behaviors unprotected sex and substance use between two independent cohorts of gay and bisexual men;Aids 14 303–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cronkite E P and Bullis J 1990 In vivo toxicity of 3′-azido-2′, 3′-dideoxythymindine (AZT) on CBA/Ca mice;Int. J. Cell Cloning 8 332–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Curran J, Lawrence D N, Jaffe H, Kaplan J E, Zyla L D, Chamberland M, Weinstein R, Lui K-J, Schonberger L B, Spira T J, Alexander W J, Swinger G, Ammann A, Solomon S, Auerbach D, Mildvan D, Stoneburner R, Jason J M, Haverkos H W and Evatt B L 1984 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions;N. Engl. J. Med. 310 69–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Curran J W, Morgan M W, Hardy A M, Jaffe H W, Darrow W W and Dowdle W R 1985 The epidemiology of AIDS: current status and future prospects;Science 229 1352–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Daar E S, Moudgil T, Meyer R D and Ho D D 1991 Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection;N. Engl. J. Med. 324 961–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dalakas M C, Illa I, Pezeshkpour G H, Laukaitis J P, Cohen B and Griffin J L 1990 Mitochondrial myopathy caused by long-term zidovudine therapy;N. Engl. J. Med. 322 1098–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Darby S C, Ewart D W, Giangrande P L F, Dolin P J, Spooner R J D, Rizza C R and on behalf of the UK Haemophilia Centre Directors’ Organisation 1995 Mortality before and after HIV infection in the complete UK population of haemophiliacs (letter);Nature (London) 377 79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Darrow W W, Echenberg D F, Jaffe H W, O’Malley P M, Byers R H, Getchell J P and Curran J W 1987 Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in homosexual men;Am. J. Publ. Health 77 479–483Google Scholar
  68. Day M 2000 No more cocktails;New Scientist, 16 December, p. 7Google Scholar
  69. de Harven E 1999 Viral etiology of human cancer: a historical perspective;Haematologica 84 385–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. de Souza R S, Gomez-Marin O, Scott G B, Guasti S, O’Sullivan M J, Oliveira R H and Mitchell C D 2000 Effect of prenatal zidovudine on disease progression in perinatally HIV-1-infected infants;J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 24 154–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Deeks S G, Smith M, Holodniy M and Kahn J O 1997 HIV-1 protease inhibitors. A review for clinicians;Jama 277 145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Diamond C, Thiede H, Perdue T, MacKellar D, Valleroy L A and Corey L 2001 Seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 among young men who have sex with men;Sex Transm. Dis. 28 176–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dournon E, Matheron S, Rozenbaum W, Gharakhanian S, Michon C, Girard P M, Perrone C, Salmon D, DeTruchis P, Leport C and the Claude Bernard Hospital AZT Study Group 1988 Effects of zidovudine in 365 consecutive patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex;Lancet 2 1297–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Downs A M, Ancelle R A, Jager H J and Brunet J B 1987 AIDS in Europe: current trends and short-term predictions estimated from surveillance data, January 1981–June 1986;Aids 1 53–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Duesberg P and Bialy H 1996 Duesberg and the Right of Reply According to Maddox — Nature; inAIDS: Virus-or drug induced? (ed.) P H Duesberg (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 111–125Google Scholar
  76. Duesberg P H 1987 Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens: expectations and reality;Cancer Res. 47 1199–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Duesberg P H 1988 HIV is not the cause of AIDS;Science 241 514–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Duesberg P H 1992 AIDS acquired by drug consumption and other noncontagious risk factors;Pharmacol. Therapeutics 55 201–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Duesberg P H 1993a Aetiology of AIDS;Lancet 341 1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Duesberg P H 1993b HIV and AIDS;Science 260 1705–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Duesberg P H 1993c HIV and the aetiology of AIDS;Lancet 341 957–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Duesberg P H 1993d The HIV gap in national AIDS statistics;Biotechnology 11 955–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Duesberg P H 1994 Infectious AIDS — stretching the germ theory beyond its limits;Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 103 131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Duesberg P H 1995a AIDS Data;Science 268 350–351Google Scholar
  85. Duesberg P H 1995b “The Duesberg-Phenomenon”: Duesberg and Other Voices (letter;)Science 267 313–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Duesberg P H 1995c Foreign-protein-mediated immunodeficiency in hemophiliacs with and without HIV;Genetica 95 51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Duesberg P H 1995d Is HIV the cause of AIDS? (letter);Lancet 346 1371–1372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Duesberg P H 1996a Commentary: non-HIV hypotheses must be studied more carefully;Br. Med. J. 312 210–211Google Scholar
  89. Duesberg P H 1996bInventing the AIDS Virus (Washington: Regnery Publishing Inc.)Google Scholar
  90. Duesberg P H and Rasnick D 1998 The AIDS dilemma: drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus;Genetica 104 85–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Dukers N H, Renwick N, Prins M, Geskus R B, Schulz T F, Weverling G J, Coutinho R A and Goudsmit J 2000 Risk factors for human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity and seroconversion in a cohort of homosexual men;Am. J. Epidemiol. 151 213–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Durack D T 1981 Opportunistic infections and Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men;N. Engl. J. Med. 305 1465–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Eggers H J and Weyer J J 1991 Linkage and independence of AIDS Kaposi disease: The interaction of human immunodeficiency virus and some coagents;Infection 19 115–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ellison B J, Downey A B and Duesberg P H. 1996 HIV as a surrogate marker for drug-use: a re-analysis of the San Francisco Men’s Health Study. inAIDS: virus- or drug induced? (ed.) P H Duesberg (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) pp 97–104Google Scholar
  95. Enserink M 2001 Old guard urges virologists to go back to basics;Science 293 24–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. European Collaborative Study 1991 Children born to women with HIV-1 infection: natural history and risk of transmission;Lancet 337 253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Farber C 1998 AZT Roulette;Mothering 90 52–65Google Scholar
  98. Fellay J, Boubaker K, Ledergerber B, Bernasconi E, Furrer H, Battegay M, Hirschel B, Vernazza P, Francioli P, Greub G, Flepp M and Telenti A 2001 Prevalence of adverse events associated with potent antiretroviral treatment: Swiss HIV Cohort Study;Lancet 358 1322–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Fenner F, McAuslan B R, Mims C A, Sambrook J and White D O 1974The biology of animal viruses (New York: Academic Press)Google Scholar
  100. Fiala C 1998 AIDS in Africa: dirty tricks;NewAfrican April, pp 36–38Google Scholar
  101. Fiala C, de Harven E, Herxheimer A, Kohnlein C, Mhlongo S and Stewart G T 2002 HIV/AIDS data in South Africa;Lancet 359 1782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Fields B 2001Field’s virology (Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)Google Scholar
  103. Fischl M A, Richman D D, Grieco M H, Gottlieb M S, Volberding P A, Laskin O L, Leedon J M, Groopman J E, Mildvan D, Schooley R T, Jackson G G, Durack D T, King D and the AZT Collaborative Working Group 1987 The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex;N. Engl. J. Med. 317 185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Fischl M A, Richman D D, Causey D M, Grieco M H, Bryson Y, Mildvan D, Laskin O L, Groopman J E, Volberding P A, Schooley R T, Jackson G G, Durack D T, Andrews J C, Nusinoff-Lehrman S, Barry D W and the AZT Collaborative working Group 1989 Prolonged zidovudine therapy in patients with AIDS and advanced AIDS-related complex;Jama 262 2405–2410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Fischl M A, Stanley K, Collier A C, Arduino J M, Stein D S, Feinberg J E, Allan J D, Goldsmith J C and Powderly W G 1995 Combination and monotherapy with zidovudine and zalcitabine in patients with advanced HIV disease. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group;Ann. Int. Med. 122 24–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Fogelman I, Lim L, Bassett R, Volberding P, Fischl M A, Stanley K, Cotton D J for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 1994 Prevalence and patterns of use of concomitant medications among participants in three multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clinical trials;J. Aquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7 1057–1063Google Scholar
  107. France D 2001 The angry prophet is dying: Controversial author Larry Kramer is a one-man history of the AIDS struggle, from early activism to the fading hope of medical salvation;Newsweek June, pp 42–46Google Scholar
  108. Francis D P, Curran J W and Essex M 1983 Epidemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Epidemiologic evidence for a transmissible agent;J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71 1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Fujimura J 1996Crafting science; a sociohistory of the quest for the genetics of cancer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press)Google Scholar
  110. Gallo R C, Salahuddin S Z, Popovic M, Shearer G M, Kaplan M, Haynes B F, Palker T J, Redfield R, Oleske J, Safai B, White G, Foster P and Markham P D 1984 Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retrovirus (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS;Science 224 500–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Gellman B 2000 S. African President Escalates AIDS Feud;Washington Post, April 19, p. A01Google Scholar
  112. Gerhard S 2001 Safe and sound underground: HIV-positive women birthing outside the system;Mothering September/ October, pp 42–57Google Scholar
  113. Gerschenson M, Erhart S W, Paik C Y, St Claire M C, Nagashima K, Skopets B, Harbaugh S W, Harbaugh J W, Quan W and Poirier M C 2000 Fetal mitochondrial heart and skeletal muscle damage inErythrocebus patas monkeys exposed in utero to 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine;AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 16 635–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Gibbons J 1996 Drugs & Us;Gay Times (London), September, pp 17–37Google Scholar
  115. Gill P S, Rarick M, Byrnes R K, Causey D, Loureiro C and Levine A M 1987 Azidothymidine associated with bone marrow failure in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS);Ann. Int. Med. 107 502–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Gisselquist D, Rothenberg R, Potterat J and Drucker E 2002 HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa not explained by sexual or vertical transmission;Int. J. STD AIDS 13 657–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Goedert J J, Cohen A R, Kessler C M, Eichinger S, Seremetis S V, Rabkin C S, Yellin F J, Rosenberg P S and Aledort L M 1994 Risks of immunodeficiency, AIDS, and death related to purity of factor VIII concentrate;Lancet 344 791–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Goedert J J, Neuland C Y, Wallen W C, Greene M H, Mann D L, Murray C, Strong D M, Fraumeni J F Jr and Blattner W A 1982 Amyl nitrite may alter T lymphocytes in homosexual men;Lancet 1 412–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Goodgame R W 1990 AIDS in Uganda-clinical and social features;N. Engl. J. Med. 323 383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gottlieb M S, Schroff R, Schanker H M, Weisman J D, Fan P T, Wolf R A and Saxon A 1981Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency;N. Engl. J. Med. 305 1425–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Grossman S J, Reinfoed N, Eydelloth R S, Alberts D W, Smith P F and Patrick D H 1997 Hepatotoxicity of an HIV protease inhibitor in dogs and rats;Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146 40–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hall C T 1996 AIDS advances boost drugmaker;San Francisco Chronicle, August 1, pp E1-E2Google Scholar
  123. Harper M E, Marselle L M, Gallo R C and Wong-Staal F 1986 Detection of lymphocytes expressing human T-lymphotropic virus type III in lymph nodes and peripheral blood from infected individuals byin situ hybridization;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83 772–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Haverkos H 1988 Epidemiologic studies — Kaposi’s sarcoma vs. opportunistic infections among homosexual men with AIDS; inHealth hazards of nitrite inhalants (eds) H W Haverkos and J A Doughertry (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse) pp 96–105Google Scholar
  125. Haverkos H W 1996 Is Kaposi sarcoma caused by new herpesvirus?;Biomed. Pharmacother. 50 318–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Haverkos H W and Dougherty J A (eds) 1988Health hazards of nitrite inhalants (83 NIDA Research Monograph, US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC)Google Scholar
  127. Haverkos H W and Drotman D P 1995 Measuring inhalant nitrite exposure in gay men: implications for elucidating the etiology of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma;Genetica 95 157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Haverkos H W and Drotman D P 1996 NIDA technical review: nitrite inhalants;Biomed. Pharmacother. 50 228–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Haverkos H W, Drotman D P and Hanson D 1994 Surveillance for AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS): update;NIDA/ CDC, Rockville, MD/Atlanta, GA MayGoogle Scholar
  130. Haverkos H W, Pinsky P F, Drotman D P and Bregman D J 1985 Disease manifestation among homosexual men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a possible role of nitrites in Kaposi’s sarcoma;J. Sex. Trans. Dis. 12 203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hazenberg M D, Hamann D, Schuitemaker H and Miedema F 2000 T cell depletion in HIV-1 infection: how CD4+ T cells go out of stock;Nature Immunol. 1 285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Hearst N and Hulley S 1988 Preventing the heterosexual spread of AIDS: Are we giving our patients the best advice?;Jama 259 2428–2432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hendrix A 2002 Artist’s perception stroked by his longtime HIV status;San Francisco Chronicle, March 20Google Scholar
  134. Heredia C 2003a Dance of death, first of three parts: crystal meth fuels HIV;San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, p. A1Google Scholar
  135. Heredia C 2003b Ph D Takes fall to addiction;San Franscisco Chronicle, May 5, p. A1Google Scholar
  136. Heresi G P, Caceres E, Atkins J T, Rueben J and Doyle M 1997Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in infants who were exposed to human immunodeficiency virus but were not infected: an exception to the AIDS Surveillance case definition;Clin. Infect. Dis. 25 739–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Hitchcock M J M 1991 Review: Antiviral portrait series Number 1; 2′,3′-Didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (D4T), an anti-HIV agent;Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2 125–132Google Scholar
  138. Ho D D 1995 Time to hit HIV, early and hard;N. Engl. J. Med. 333 450–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ho D D, Neumann A U, Perelson A S, Chen W, Leonard J M and Markowitz M 1995 Rapid Turnover of Plasma Virions and CD4 Lymphocytes in HIV-1 Infection:Nature (London) 373 123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hodgkinson N 1996AIDS: the failure of contemporary science (London: Fourth Estate)Google Scholar
  141. Hodgkinson N 2001 Molecular miscarriage: Is the HIV theory a tragic mistake?;Mothering September/October, pp 58–73Google Scholar
  142. Hogg R S, Yip B, Chan K J, Wood E, Craib K J, O’Shaughnessy M V and Montaner J S 2001 Rates of Disease Progression by Baseline CD4 Cell Count and Viral Load After Initiating Triple-Drug Therapy;Jama 286 2568–2577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Hoots K and Canty D 1998 Clotting factor concentrates and immune function in haemophilic patients;Haemophilia 4 704–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Hoover D R, Rinaldo C, He Y, Phair J, Fahey J and Graham N M 1995 Long-term survival without clinical AIDS after CD4+ cell counts fall below 200 × 10(6)/1;Aids 9 145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Horton R 1995 Will Duesberg now concede defeat?;Lancet 346 656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Horwitz J P, Chua J and Noel M 1964 Nucleosides. V. The monomesylates of l-(2′-deoxy-beta-D-lyxofuranosyl) thymidine;J. Org. Chem. 29 2076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hoxie J A, Haggarty B S, Rakowski J L, Pillsbury N and Levy J A 1985 Persistent noncytopathic infection of normal human T lymphocytes with AIDS-associated retrovirus;Science 229 1400–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Inoue T, Cronkite E P, Hirabayashi Y, Bullis J E Jr, Mitsui H and Umemura T 1997 Lifetime treatment of mice with azidothymidine (AZT) produces myelodysplasia;Leukemia (Suppl. 3) 11 123–127Google Scholar
  149. Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences 1986Confronting AIDS (Washington DC: National Academy Press)Google Scholar
  150. Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences 1988Confronting AIDS-Update 1988 (Washington DC: National Academy Press)Google Scholar
  151. Jacobson M A, de Miranda P, Gordon S M, Blum M R, Volberding P and Mills J 1988 Prolonged pancytopenia due to combined ganciclovir and zidovuduine therapy;J. Infect. Dis. 158 489–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Jacquez J A, Koopman J S, Simon C P and Longini Jr I M 1994 Role of the primary infection in epidemics of HIV infection in gay cohorts;J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7 1169–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Jaffe H W, Choi K, Thomas P A, Haverkos H W, Auerbach D M, Guinan M E, Rogers M F, Spira T J, Darrow W W, Kramer M A, Friedman S M, Monroe J M, Friedman-Kien A E, Laubenstein L J, Marmor M, Safai B, Dritz S K, Crispi S J, Fannin S L, Orkwis J P, Kelter A, Rushing W R, Thacker S B and Curran J W 1983 National case-control study of Kaposi’s sarcoma andPneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men: Part 1, Epidemiologic results;Ann. Int. Med. 99 145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Johnson J A 2000AIDS Funding for Federal Government Programs: FY1981-FY2001 (Congressional Research Service/The Library of Congress)Google Scholar
  155. Kaslow R A, Blackwelder W C, Ostrow D G, Yerg D, Palenicek J, Coulson A H and Valdiserri R O 1989 No evidence for a role of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs in accelerating immunodeficiency in HIV-1-positive individuals;Jama 261 3424–3429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kline M W, Van Dyke R B, Lindsey J C, Gwynne M, Culnane M, McKinney R E, Nichols S, Mitchell W G, Yogev R, Hutcheon N and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 240 Team 1998 A randomized comparative trial of stavudine (d4T) versus zidovudine (ZDU, AZT) in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection;Pediatrics 101 214–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kolata G 1987 Imminent marketing of AZT raises problems; Marrow suppression hampers AZT use in AIDS victims;Science 235 1462–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Konotey-Ahulu F I D 1987a AIDS in Africa: Misinformation and disinformation;Lancet 2 206–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Konotey-Ahulu F I D 1987b Clinical epidemiology, not seroepidemiology, is the answer to Africa’s AIDS problem;Br. Med. J. 294 1593–1594Google Scholar
  160. Konotey-Ahulu F I D 1989What is AIDS? (Watford, England: Tetteh-A’Domenco)Google Scholar
  161. Kuhn L, Abrams E J, Weedon J, Lambert G, Schoenbaum E E, Nesheim S R, Palumbo P, Vink P E and Bulterys M 2000 Disease progression and early viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children exposed to zidovudine during prenatal and perinatal periods;J. Infect. Dis. 182 104–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Kumar R M, Hughes P F and Khurranna A 1994 Zidovudine use in pregnancy: a report on 104 cases and the occurence of birth defects;J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7 1034–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lang S 1998Challenges (New York: Springer)Google Scholar
  164. Langhoff E, McElrath J, Bos H J, Pruett J, Granelli-Piperno A, Cohn Z A and Steinman R M 1989 Most CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected patients can undergo prolonged clonal expansion;J. Clin. Invest. 84 1637–1643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lauritsen J 1994 NIH reconsiders nitrites’ link to AIDS;Biotechnology 12 762–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lauritsen J and Wilson H 1986Death rush, poppers and AIDS (New York: Pagan Press)Google Scholar
  167. Learmont J, Tindall B, Evans L, Cunningham A, Cunningham P, Wells J, Penny R, Kaldor J and Cooper D A 1992 Long-term symptomless HIV-1 infection in recipients of blood products from a single donor;Lancet 340 863–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Lerner W D 1989 Cocaine abuse and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: tale of two epidemics;Am. J. Med. 87 661–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Levy J A 1998 Caution: should we be treating HIV infection early?;Lancet 352 982–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Levy J A, Hoffman A D, Kramer S M, Landis J A and Shimabukuro J M 1984 Isolation of lymphocytopathic retroviruses from San Francisco patients with AIDS;Science 225 840–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lifson A R, Darrow W W, Hessol N A, O’Malley P M, Barnhart J L, Jaffe H W and Rutherford G W 1990 Kaposi’s sarcoma in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: epidemiology and analysis for cofactors;Am. J. Epidemiol. 131 221–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Lori F, Maserati R, Foli A, Seminari E, Timpone J and Lisziewicz J 2000 Structured treatment interruptions to control HIV-1 infection;Lancet 355 287–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Los Angeles Times 1998 Clinton to announce new drug plan;San Francisco Chronicle, February 13, p. A17Google Scholar
  174. Maddox J 1993 Has Duesberg a right of reply?;Nature (London) 363 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Maddox J 1995 More conviction on HIV and AIDS;Nature (London) 377 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Maggiore C 2000What if everything you thought you knew about AIDS was wrong? (Los Angeles: The American Foundation for AIDS Alternatives)Google Scholar
  177. Malan R 2001 AIDS in Africa in search of the truth;Rolling Stone, 22 November, pp 70–72, 74–78, 80, 82, 100, 102Google Scholar
  178. Mansergh G, Colfax G N, Marks G, Rader M, Guzman R and Buchbinder S 2001 The Circuit Party Men’s Health Survey: findings and implications for gay and bisexual men;Am. J. Public Health 91 953–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Marmor M, Friedman-Kien A E, Laubenstein L, Byrum R D, William D C, D’Onofrio S and Dubin N 1982 Risk factors for Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men;Lancet 1 1083–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Marx J 1984 Strong new candidate for AIDS agent;Science 224 475–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Mathur-Wagh U, Enlow R W, Spigland I, Winchester R J, Sacks H S, Rorat E, Yancovitz S R, Klein M J, William D C and Mildvan D 1984 Longitudinal study of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy in homosexual men: Relation to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome;Lancet 1 1033–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Mattison A M, Ross M W, Wolfson T and Franklin D 2001 Circuit party attendance, club drug use, and unsafe sex in gay men;J. Subst. Abuse 13 119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. McCune J M 2001 The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease;Nature (London) 410 974–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. McKallip R J, Nagarkatti M and Nagarkatti P S 1995 Immunotoxicity of AZT: Inhibitory Effect on Thymocyte Differentiation and Peripheral T Cell Responsiveness to gp120 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus;Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 131 53–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. McManus T J, Starrett L A and Harris J R W 1982 Amyl Nitrite Use by Homosexuals;Lancet 1 503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. McNall M and Remafedi G 1999 Relationship of amphetamine and other substance use to unprotected intercourse among young men who have sex with men;Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 153 1130–1135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Merriam-Webster (ed.) 1965Webster’s Third International Dictionary (Springfield, MA: G & C Merriam)Google Scholar
  188. Migueles S A, Sabbaghian M S, Shupert W L, Bettinotti M P, Marincola F M, Martino L, Hallahan C W, Selig S M, Schwartz D, Sullivan J and Connors M 2000 HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV-infected long term nonprogressors;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 2709–2714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Mims C and White D O 1984Viral pathogenesis and immunology (Oxford: Blackwell)Google Scholar
  190. Mir N and Costello C 1988 Zidovudine and bone marrow;Lancet 2 1195–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Barton S E, Dietrich M, Proenca R, Colebunders R, Pradier C, dArminio Monforte A, Ledergerber B and Lundgren J D 1999 Anaemia is an independent predictive marker for clinical prognosis in HIV-infected patients from across Europe. EuroSIDA study group;Aids 13 943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Moss A R 1987 AIDS and intravenous drug use: the real heterosexual epidemic;Br. Med. J. 294 389–390Google Scholar
  193. Moye J, Rich K C, Kalish L A, Sheon A R, Diaz C, Cooper E R, Pitt J, Handelsman E and for the Women and Infants Transmission Study Group 1996 Natural history of somatic growth in infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus;J. Pediatr. 128 58–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Munoz A 1995 Disease progression; 15 percent of HIV-infected men will be long-term survivors;AIDS Weekly (News Report) May 15 and 29, 5–6, 3–4Google Scholar
  195. Namango N and World Food Program of the United Nations 2001 AIDS und Hunger haengen zusammen;Frankfurter Rundschau, July 20Google Scholar
  196. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Institutes of Health 2001The evidence that HIV causes AIDS (US government web site: Scholar
  197. Newell G R, Adamas S C, Mansell P W A and Hersh E M 1984 Toxicity, immunosupprressive effects, and carcinogenic potential of volatile nitrites: possible relationship to Kaposi’s sarcoma;Pharmacotherapy 4 284–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Newell G R, Mansell P W A, Spitz M R, Reuben J M and Hersh E M 1985 Volatile nitrites: Use and adverse effects related to the current epidemic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome;Am. J. Med. 78 811–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Newell G R, Spitz M R and Wilson M B 1988 Nitrite inhalants: Historical perspective; inHealth hazards of nitrite inhalants (eds) H W Haverkos and J A Dougherty (Rockville, MD: National Institue of Drug Abuse) pp 1–14Google Scholar
  200. Newschaffer C J, Zhang D, Hauck W W, Fanning T and Turner B J 1999 Effect of enhanced prenatal and HIV-focused services for pregnant women who are infected by human immunodeficiency virus on emergency department use;Med. Care 37 1308–1319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Novick B E and Rubinstein A 1987 AIDS-The paediatric perspective;Aids 1 3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Nussbaum B 1990Good intentions: How big business politics and medicine are corrupting the fight against AIDS (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press)Google Scholar
  203. O’Brien S J 1997 The HIV-AIDS debate is over;HIV Newsline 4 3–9Google Scholar
  204. O’Brien S J and Goedert J J 1996 HIV causes AIDS: Koch’s postulates fulfilled;Curr. Opin. Immunol. 8 613–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Oliver R T D 2000 Though HIV is the main cause of AIDS, other factors play a role;Nature (London) 406 673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Olivero O A, Anderson L M, Diwan B A, Haines D C, Harbaugh S W, Moskal T J, Jones A B, Rice J M, Riggs C W, Logsdon D, Yuspa S H and Poirier M C 1997 Transplacental effects of 3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (AZT): tumorigenicity in mice and genotoxicity in mice and monkeys;J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89 1602–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Omar R F, Gourde P, Desormeaux A, Tremblay M, Beauchamp D and Bergeron M G 1996 In vivo toxicity of foscarnet and zidovudine given alone or in combination;Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 139 324–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Oppenheimer G M 1992 Causes, cases, and cohorts: The role of epidemiology in the historical construction of AIDS; inAIDS: The making of a chronic disease (eds) E Fee and D M Fox (Berkeley: University of California Press) pp 49–83Google Scholar
  209. Ostrow D G, Beltran E D, Joseph J G, DiFranceisco W, Wesch J and Chmiel J S 1993 Recreational drugs and sexual behaviour in the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort of homosexually active men;J. Substance Abuse 5 311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Ostrow D G, Van Raden M J, Fox R, Kingsley L A, Dudley J, Kaslow R A and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) 1990 Recreational drug use and sexual behaviour change in a cohort of homosexual men;Aids 4 759–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Padian N S, Shiboski S C, Glass S O and Vittinghoff E 1997 Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Northern California: results from a ten-year study;Am. J. Epidemiol. 146 350–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Palella F J Jr, Delaney K M, Moorman A C, Loveless M O, Fuhrer J, Satten G A, Aschman D J and Holmberg S D 1998 Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV out-patient Study Investigators;N. Engl. J. Med. 338 853–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Pallangyo K J, Mbaga I M, Mugusi F, Mbena E, Mhalu F S, Bredberg U and Biberfeld G 1987 Clinical case definition of AIDS in African adults;Lancet 2 972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Pantaleo G, Menzo S, Vaccarezza M, Graziosi C, Cohen O J, Demarest J F, Montefiori D, Orenstein J M, Fox C, Schrager L K, Margolick J B, Buchbinder S, Giorgi J V and Fauci A S 1995 Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive human immunodeficiency virus infection;N. Engl. J. Med. 332 209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Pauk J, Huang M L, Brodie S J, Wald A, Koelle D M, Schacker T, Celum C, Selke S and Corey L 2000 Mucosal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in men;N. Engl. J. Med. 343 1369–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Phillips A N, Staszewski S, Weber R, Kirk O, Francioli P, Miller V, Vernazza P, Lundgren J D and Ledergerber B 2001 HIV Viral Load Response to Antiretroviral Therapy According to the Baseline CD4 Cell Count and Viral Load;Jama 286 2560–2567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Piot P, Quinn T C, Taelman H, Feinsod F M, Minlangu K B, Wobin O, Mbendi N, Mazebo P, Ndangi K, Stevens Wet al 1984 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a heterosexual population in Zaire;Lancet 2 65–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Pitcher C J, Quittner C, Peterson D M, Connors M, Koup R A, Maino V C and Picker L J 1999 HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells are detectable in most individuals with active HIV-1 infection but decline with prolonged viral suppression;Nat. Med. 5 518–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Pluda J M, Yarchoan R, Jaffe E S, Feuerstein I M, Solomon D, Steinberg S, Wyvill K M, Raubitschek A, Katz D and Broder S 1990 Development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on long-term antiretroviral therapy;Ann. Int. Med. 113 276–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Poznansky M C, Coker R, Skinner C, Hill A, Bailey S, Whitaker L, Renton A and Weber J 1995 HIV positive patients first presenting with an AIDS defining illness: characteristics and survival;Br. Med. J. 311 156–158Google Scholar
  221. Quinn T C, Mann J M, Curran J W and Piot P 1986 AIDS in Africa: an epidemiological paradigm;Science 234 955–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Quinn T C, Piot P, McCormick J B, Feinsod F M, Taelman H, Kapita B, Stevens W and Fauci A S 1987 Serologic and immunologic studies in patients with AIDS in North America and Africa: the potential role of infectious agents as cofactors in human immunodeficiency virus infection;Jama 257 2617–2621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Race E M, Adelson-Mitty J, Kriegel G R, Barlam T F, Reimann K A, Letvin N L and Japour A J 1998 Focal mycobacterial lymphadenitis following initiation of protease-inhibitor therapy in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease;Lancet 351 252–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Rappoport J 1988AIDS INC (San Bruno, CA: Human Energy Press)Google Scholar
  225. Rasnick D 1997 Kinetics analysis of consecutive HIV proteolytic cleavages of the Gag-Pol polyprotein;J. Biol. Chem. 272 6348–6353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Richman D D, Fischl M A, Grieco M H, Gottlieb M S, Volberding P A, Laskin O L, Leedom J M, Groopman J E, Mildvan D, Hirsch M S, Jackson G G, Durack D T, Nusinoff-Lehrman S and the AZT Collaborative Working Group 1987 The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex;N. Engl. J. Med. 317 192–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Robert Koch Institut 2000 HIV/AIDS-Halbjahresbericht I/2000;Epidemiol. Bulletin 15 September, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  228. Rogers M F, Ou C-Y, Rayfield M, Thomas P A, Schoenbaum E E, Abrams E, Krasinski K, Selwyn P A, Moore J, Kaul A, Grimm K T, Bamji M, Schochetman G and the New York City Collaborative Study of Maternal HIV Transmission and Montefiori Medical Center HIV Perinatal Transmission Study Group 1989 Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers;N. Engl. J. Med. 320 1649–1654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Root-Bernstein R 1993Rethinking AIDS; The tragic cost of premature consensus (New York: Free Press)Google Scholar
  230. Rosenberg M J and Weiner J M 1988 Prostitutes and AIDS: A health department priority?;Am. J. Public Health 78 418–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Ross E 2003 Sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya and the Malthusian paradigm in contemporary development thinking; inReclaiming knowledge for diversity (ed.) M Pimbert (Earthscan) (in press)Google Scholar
  232. Russell S 2001 Deceptive AIDS ads must stop, FDA says;San Francisco Chronicle, 28 April, p. A1, A13Google Scholar
  233. Sabin C A, Phillips A N and Lee C A 1996 Response: arguments contradict the “foreign protein-zidovudine” hypothesis;Br. Med. J. 312 211–212Google Scholar
  234. Sadownick D 1994 Kneeling at the Crystal Cathedral;Genre December/January, pp 40–45, 86–90Google Scholar
  235. Saftig P, Hetman M, Schmahl W, Weber K, Heine L, Mossmann H, Koster A, Hess B, Evers M, von Figura Ket al 1995 Mice deficient for the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin D exhibit progressive atrophy of the intestinal mucosa and profound destruction of lymphoid cells;EMBO J. 14 3599–3608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Sande M A 1986 Transmission of AIDS. The case against casual contagion;N. Engl. J. Med. 314 380–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Saves M, Vandentorren S, Daucourt V, Marimoutou C, Dupon M, Couzigou P, Bernard N, Mercie P and Dabis F 1999 Severe hepatic cytolysis: incidence and risk factors in patients treated by antiretroviral combinations. Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1996–1998. Groupe dEpidemiologie Clinique de Sida en Aquitaine (GECSA);Aids 13 F115–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Scalfaro P, Chesaux J J, Buchwalder P A, Biollaz J and Micheli J L 1998 Severe transient neonatal lactic acidosis during prophylactic zidovudine treatment;Intensive Care Med. 24 247–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Schechter M T, Craib K J P, Gelmon K A, Montaner J S G, Le T N and O’Shaughnessy M V 1993 HIV-1 and the aetiology of AIDS;Lancet 341 658–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Schnittman S M, Psallidopoulos M C, Lane H C, Thompson L, Baseler M, Massari F, Fox C H, Salzman N P and Fauci A 1989 The reservoir for HIV-1 in human peripheral blood is a T cell that maintains expression of CD4;Science 245 305–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Seligmann M, Chess L, Fahey J L, Fauci A S, Lachmann P J, L’Age-Stehr J, Ngu J, Pinching A J, Rosen F S, Spira T J and Wybran J 1984 AIDS—an immunologic reevaluation;N. Engl. J. Med. 311 1286–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Seligmann M, Warrell D A, Aboulker J-P, Carbon C, Darbyshire J H, Dormont J, Eschwege E, Girling D J, James D R, Levy J-P, Peto P T A, Schwarz D, Stone A B, Weller I V D, Withnall R, Gelmon K, Lafon E, Swart A M, Aber V R, Babiker A G, Lhoro S, Nunn A J and Vray M 1994 Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection;Lancet 343 871–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Selik R M, Starcher E T and Curran J W 1987 Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: frequencies, associations, and trends;Aids 1 175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Shenton J 1998Positively False: exposing the myths around HIV and AIDS (London/New York: IB Tauris)Google Scholar
  245. Shilts R 1987And the band played on (New York: St. Martin’s Press)Google Scholar
  246. Simmonds P, Balfe P, Peutherer J F, Ludlam C A, Bishop J O and Leigh-Brown A J 1990 Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals contain provirus in small numbers of peripheral mononuclear cells and at low copy numbers;J. Virol. 64 864–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Smothers K 1991 Pharmacology and toxicology of AIDS therapies;AIDS Reader 1 29–35Google Scholar
  248. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary 1982 (Baltimore: Wiliams & Wilkins)Google Scholar
  249. Stewart G T, Mhlongo S, de Harven E, Fiala C, Koehnlein C, Herxheimer A, Duesberg P, Rasnick D, Giraldo R, Kothari M, Bialy H and Geshekter C 2000 The Durban Declaration is not accepted by all;Nature (London) 407 286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Stolberg S 2001 In AIDS war, new weapons and new victims;New York Times, June 3, p. 1Google Scholar
  251. Stoneburner R L, Des Jarlais D C, Benezra D, Gorelkin L, Sotheran J L, Friedman S R, Schultz S, Marmor M, Mildvan D and Maslansky R 1988 A larger spectrum of severe HIV-I-related disease in intravenous drug users in New York City;Science 242 916–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Szasz T 2001 The Therapeutic State: The Tyranny of Pharmacracy;The Independent Review, Spring, pp 485–501Google Scholar
  253. Tanaka M 1996 Abrams cautious on use of new AIDS drugs;Synapse (University of California San Francisco) October 10, p. 1,5Google Scholar
  254. The Durban Declaration 2000 The Durban Declaration;Nature (London) 406 15–16Google Scholar
  255. Thompson M B, Dunnick J K, Sutphin M E, Giles H D, Irwin R D and Prejean J D 1991 Hematologic toxicity of AZT and ddC administered as single agents and in combination to rats and mice;Fundamental Appl. Toxicol. 17 159–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Till M and MacDonnell K B 1990 Myopathy with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: HIV-1 or zidovudine?;Ann. Int. Med. 113 492–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Toltzis P, Mourton T and Magnuson T 1993 Effect of zidovudine on preimplantation murine embryos;Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37 1610–1613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Toufexis A 1991 Innocent victims;Time May 13, pp 56–60Google Scholar
  259. US Bureau of the Census International Data Base 2001World population by region and development category: 1950–2025 (US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census)Google Scholar
  260. Van de Perre P, Rouvroy D, Lepage P, Bogaerts J, Kestelyn P, Kayihigi J, Hekker A C, Butzler J P and Clumeck N 1984 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Rwanda;Lancet 2 62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Veugelers P J, Page K A, Tindall B, Schechter M T, Moss A R, Winkelstein W W, Cooper D A, Craib K J P, Charlebois E, Coutinho R A and Van Griensven G J P 1994 Determinants of HIV disease progression among homsexual men registered in the tricontinental seroconverter study;Am. J. Epidemiol. 140 747–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Volberding P A, Lagakos S W, Koch M A, Pettinelli C, Myers M W, Booth D K, Balfour H H Jr, Reichman R C, Bartlett J A, Hirsch M S, Murphy R L, Hardy W D, Soeiro R, Fischl M A, Bartlett J G, Merigan T C, Hyslop N E, Richman D D, Valentine F T, Corey L and the AIDS Clinical Trial Group of the National Insitute of Allergy and Infectious Disease 1990 Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection: A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter;N. Engl. J. Med. 322 941–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Ward J W, Bush T J, Perkins H A, Lieb L E, Allen J R, Goldfinger D, Samson S M, Pepkowitz S H, Fernando L P, Holland P V, Kleinman S H, Grindon A J, Garner J L, Rutherford G W and Holmberg S D 1989 The natural history of trasfusion-associated infection with human immunodeficiency virus;N. Engl. J. Med. 321 947–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Wei X, Ghosh S K, Taylor M E, Johnson V A, Emini E A, Deutsch P, Lifson J D, Bonhoeffer S, Nowak M A, Hahn B H, Saag M S and Shaw G M 1995 Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection;Nature (London) 373 117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Weiss R 1991 Provenance of HIV strains;Nature (London) 349 374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Weiss R and Jaffe H 1990 Duesberg HIV and AIDS;Nature (London) 345 659–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. White House Office of National Drug Control Policy 1998Fact Sheet: Drug data summary (DHSS, The White House)Google Scholar
  268. Woody G E, VanEtten-Lee M L, McKirnan D, Donnell D, Metzger D, Seage G III and Gross M 2001 Substance use among men who have sex with men: comparison with a national household survey;J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 27 86–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. World Health Organization 1986 Provisional WHO clinical case definition for AIDS;Weekly Epidemiological Records, March 7,10 72–73Google Scholar
  270. World Health Organization 1999 Global AIDS surveillance, Part II;Weekly Epidemiological Records 74 (3 December) 409–411Google Scholar
  271. World Health Organization 2000 Global AIDS surveillance, Part I;Weekly Epidemiological Records 75 (26 November) 379–383Google Scholar
  272. World Health Organization 2001a Global AIDS surveillance, Part II;Weekly Epidemiological Records 76 (50) 390–396Google Scholar
  273. World Health Organization 2001b Global situation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, end 2001 Part I;Weekly Epidemiological Records 76 (49) 381–384Google Scholar
  274. Zhang L, Yu W, He T, Yu J, Caffrey R E, Dalmasso E A, Fu S, Pham T, Mei J, Ho J J, Zhang W, Lopez P and Ho D D 2002 Contribution of Human alpha-Defensin-1, -2 and -3 to the Anti-HIV-1 Activity of CD8 Antiviral Factor;Science 298 995–2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Zuger A 2001 A molecular offspring, off to join the AIDS wars;New York Times, 20 March, p. D7Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Duesberg
    • 1
  • Claus Koehnlein
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Rasnick
    • 1
  1. 1.Donner LaboratoryUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Internistische PraxisKielGermany

Personalised recommendations