Advertisement

Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 423–432 | Cite as

Pathogenesis of infection byEntamoeba histolytica

  • Devinder Sehgal
  • Alok Bhattacharya
  • Sudha Bhattacharya
Article

Abstract

Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is the etiologic agent of amoebiasis in humans. It exists in two forms—the trophozoite which is the active, dividing form, and the cyst which is dormant and can survive for prolonged periods outside the host. In most infected individuals the trophozoites exist as commensals. In a small percentage of infections, the trophozoites become invasive and penetrate the intestinal mucosa, causing ulcers. The trophozoites may reach other parts of the body—mainly liver, where they cause tissue necrosis, leading to lifethreatening abscesses. It is thought that pathogenesis of infection byEntamoeba histolytica is governed at several levels, chief among them are (i) adherence of trophozoite to the target cell, (ii) lysis of target cell, and (iii) phagocytosis of target cell. Several molecules which may be involved in these processes have been identified. A lectin inhibitable by galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine is present on the trophozoite surface. This is implicated in adherence of trophozoite to the target cell. Various amoebic poreforming proteins are known, of which 5kDa protein (amoebapore) has been extensively studied. These can insert into the lipid bilayers of target cells, forming ion-channels. The phagocytic potential of trophozoites is directly linked to virulence as measured in animal models. Factors like association of bacteria with trophozoites also influence virulence. Thus, pathogenesis is determined by multiple factors and a unifying picture taking into account the relative contributions of each factor is sought. Recent technical advances, which includes the development of a transfection system to introduce genes into trophozoites, should help to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis in amoebiasis.

Keywords

Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis amoebiasis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bhattacharya A, Ghildyal R, Prasad J, Bhattacharya S and Diamond L S 1992a Modulation of a surface antigenOfEntamoeba histolytica in response to bacteria;Infect. Immun. 60 1711–1713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattacharya A, Prasad R and Sacks D 1992b Identification and partial characterization of a lipophosphoglycan-like molecule from a pathogenic strain ofEntamoeba histolytica;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 56 161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bos H J 1979Entamoeba histolytica: cytopathogenicity of intact amoeba and cell-free extracts: isolation and characterization of an intracellular toxin;Exp. Parasitol. 47 369–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bos H J, Leijendekker W J and van den Eijk A A 1980Entamoeba histolytica: cytopathogenicity, including serum effects on contact-dependent and toxin-induced lysis of hamster kidney cell monolayers;Exp. Parastiol. 50 342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bracha R, Kobiler D and Mirelman D 1982 Attachment and ingestion of bacteria by trophozoites ofEntamoeba histolytica;Infect. Immun. 36 396–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bracha R and Mirelman D 1983 Adherence and ingestion ofEscherichia coli serotype 055 by trophozoites ofEntamoeba histolytica;Infect. Immun. 40 882–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bracha R and Mirelman D 1984 Virulence ofEntamoeba histolytica trophozoites: effects of bacteria, microaerobic conditions and metronidazole;J. Exp. Med. 160 353–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brandt H and Perez-Tamoyo 1970 Pathology of human amoebiasis;Hum. Pathol. 1 351–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chadee K, Johnson M L, Orozco E, Petri W A and Ravdin J I 1988 Binding and internalization of rat colonic mucins by the galactose/N-acetyl-D-galactosamine adherene lectin ofEntamoeba histolytica;J. Infect. Dis. 158 398–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chadee K, Petri W A, Innes D J and Ravdin J I 1987 Rat and human colonic mucins bind to and inhibit the adherence lectinof Entamoeba histolytica;J. Clin. Invest. 80 1245–1254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark C G and Roger A 1995 Direct evidence for secondary loss of mitochondria inEntamoeba histolytica;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92 6518–6521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diamond L S and Clark C G 1993 A redescription ofE. histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 (Emended Walker, 1911) separating it fromE. dispar Brumpt, 1925;J. Euk. Microbiol. 40 340–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dodson J M and Petri W A 1994 Pore formation and cytolysis byEntamoeba histolytica;Parasitol. Today 10 7–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gadasi H and Kobiler D 1983Entamoeba histolytica: correlation between virulence and content of proteolytic enzymes;Exp. Parasitol. 55 105–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guerrant R L, Brush J, Ravdin J I, Sullivan J A and Mandell G L 1981 Interaction betweenEntamoeba histolytica and human polymorphonuclear neutrophils;J. Infect. Dis. 143 83–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Joyce M P and Ravdin J I 1988 Pathology of Human amoebiasis: inAmoebiasis: Human infection by Entamoeba histolytica (ed.) JI Ravdin (New York: John Wiley) pp 129–146Google Scholar
  17. Keene W E, Petitt M A, Allen S and McKerrow J H 1986 The major neutral proteinase ofEntamoeba histolytica;J. Exp. Med. 163 536–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kobiler D and Mirelman D 1981 Adhesionof Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to monolayers of human cells;J. Infect. Dis. 144 539–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Leippe M, Bahr E, Tannich E and Horstmann R D 1993 Comparison of pore-forming peptides from pathogenic and nonpathogenicE. histolytica;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 59 101–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leippe M, Ebel S, Schoenberger O L, Horstmann R D and Muller-Eberhard H J 1991 Pore-forming peptide of pathogenicEntamoeba histolytica;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 7659–7663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leippe M, Tannich E, Nickel R, Vandergoot G, Pattus F, Horstmann R D and Muller-Eberhard H J 1992 Primary and secondary structure of the pore forming peptide of pathogenicEntamoeba histolytica;EMBOJ. 11 3501–3506Google Scholar
  22. Luaces A L and Barrett A J 1988 Affinity purification and biochemical characterization of histolysin, the major cysteine proteinaseofEntamoeba histolytica;Biochem. J. 250 903–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lushbaugh W B 1988 Proteinasesof Entamoeba histolytica; inAmoebiasis: Human infection by Entamoeba histolytica (ed.) JI Ravdin (New York: John Wiley) pp 219–231Google Scholar
  24. Lushbaugh W B, Kairalla A B, Cantey J R, Hotbauer A F and Pittman F E 1979 Isolation of a cytotoxinenterotoxin fromEntamoeba histolytica;J. Inf. Dis. 139 9–17Google Scholar
  25. Lushbaugh W B, Kairalla A B, Cantey J R, Hofbauer A F, Pittman J C and Pittman F E 1978a Cytotoxicity of cell-free extractsofEntamoeba histolytica;Arch. Invest. Med. 9 233–236Google Scholar
  26. Lushbaugh W B, Kairalla A B, Hofbauer A F, Cantey J R and Pittman F E 1978b Cytotoxic activity of a cell-free extractsofEntamoeba histolytica;Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72 105–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mann B J, Torian B E, Vedvick T S and Petri W A 1991 Sequence of a cysteine-rich galactose-specific lectin ofEntamoeba histolytica;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 3248–3252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCaul T F 1977 Transmission electron microscopy observation of phagocytosis in trophozoite ofEntamoeba histolytica in contact with tissue culture cells;Z. Parasitentd. 52 203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McCoy J J, Mann B J and Petri W A 1994 Aherence and cytotoxicityofEntamoeba histolytica or How lectins let parasites stick around;Infect. Immun. 62 3045–3050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McCoy J J, Mann B J, Vedvick T S and Petri W A 1993a Sequence analysis of genes encoding the light subunitofEntamoeba histolytica galactose-specific adhesin;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 61 325–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCoy J J, Mann B J, Vedvick T S and Petri W A 1993b Structural analysis of light subunit OfEntamoeba histolytica galactose-specific adherence lectin;J. Biol. Chem. 268 24223–24231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. McKerrow J H, Sun E, Rosenthal P J and Bouvier J 1993 The proteases and pathogenicity of parasitic protozoan;Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 47 821–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meerovitch E and Chadee K 1988In vivo models of pathogenicity in amoebiasis; inAmoebiasis: Human infection by Entamoeba histolytica (ed.) J I Ravdin (New York: John Wiley) pp 177–190Google Scholar
  34. Nickel R and Tannich E 1994 Transfection and transient expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in the protozoan parasiteEntamoeba histolytica;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 7095–7098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Orozco E, Guarneros G, Martinez-Palomo A and Sanchez T 1983Entamoeba histolytica: phagocytosis as a virulence factors;J. Exp. Med. 158 1511–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Petri W A, Chapman M D, Snodgrass T L, Mann B J, Broman J and Ravdin J I 1989 Subunit structure of the galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable adherence lectin ofEntamoeba histolytica;J. Biol. Chem. 264 3007–3012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Petri W A and Ravdin J I 1988In vitro models of amoebic pathogenesis; inAmoebiasis: Human infection by Entamoeba histolytica (ed.) J I Ravdin (John Wiley) pp 191–204Google Scholar
  38. Petri W A, Smith R D, Schlesinger P H, Murphy C F and Ravdin J I 1987 Isolation of a galactose-binding lectin that mediates thein vitro adherenceof Entamoeba histolytica;J. Clin. Invest. 80 1238–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pittman F E, El-Hashimi W K and Pittman J C 1973 Studies of human amoebiasis. II Light and electron-microscopic observations of colonic mucosa and exudate in acute amoebic colitis;Gastroenterology 65 588–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Pittman F E and Hennigar G R 1974 Sigmoidoscopic and colonic mucosal biopsy finding in amoebic colitis;Arch. Pathol. 97 155–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Pollard T D 1976 The role of actin in the temperature-dependent gelation and contraction of extracts ofAcanthamoeba;J. Cell. Biol. 68 579–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prathap K and Gilman R 1970 The histology of acute intestinal amoebiasis: a rectal biopsy study;Am. J. Pathol. 60 229–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Purdy J E, Mann B J, Pho L and Petri W A 1994 Transient transfection of the enteric parasiteEntamoeba histolytica and expression of firefly luciferase;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 7099–7103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Purdy J E, Mann B J, Shigart E C and Petri W A 1993 Analysis of the gene family encoding theEntamoeba histolytica galactose-specific adhesin 170-kDa subunit;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 62 53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravdin J I, John J E, Jonston L I, Innes D J and Guerrant R L 1985a Adherence ofEntamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa;Infect. Immun. 48 292–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ravdin J I, Murphy C F, Guerrant R L and Long-Krug S A 1985b Effect of calcium and phospholipase A antagonists in the cytopathogenicityof Entamoeba histolytica;J. Infect. Dis. 152 542–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ravdin J I and Guerrant R L 1981 Role of adherence in cytopathogenic mechanismsof Entamoeba histolytica: study with mammalian tissue culture cells and human erythrocytes;J. Clin. Invest. 68 1305–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ravdin J I, Murphy C F, Salata R A, Guerrant R L and Hewlett E L 1985c N-Acetyl-D-galactosamineinhibitable adherence lectine ofEntamoeba histolytica I. Partial purification and relation to amoebic virulencein vitro;J. Infect. Dis. 151 804–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Reed S, Keene W E and McKerrow J H 1989 Thiol protease expression correlates with pathogenicity ofEntamoeba histolytica;J. Clin. Microbiol. 27 2772–2777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Salata R A, Pearson R P, Murphy C F and Ravdin J I 1985 Interaction of human leukocytes withEntamoeba histolytica: killing of virulent amoebae by macrophage;J. Clin. Invest. 76 491–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Salata R A and Ravdin J I 1985 N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin ofEntamoeba histolytica II. Mitogenic activity for human lymphocytes;J. Infect. Dis. 151 816–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Salata R A and Ravdin J I 1986 The interaction of human neutrophils andEntamoeba histolytica trophozoites increases cytopathogenicity for liver cell monolayers;J Infect. Dis. 154 19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Sargeaunt P G, Williams J E and Green J D 1978 The differentiation of invasive and noninvasiveE. histolytica by isoenzyme electrophoresis.Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72 519–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schulte W, Scholze H and Werries E 1987 Specificity of a cysteine proteinase ofEntamoeba histolytica towards the α1-CB2 peptide of bovine collagen type I;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 25 39–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scholze H and Schulte W 1988 On the specificity of a cysteine proteinase fromEntamoeba histolytica;Biomed. Biochem. Acta 47 115–123Google Scholar
  56. Scholze H and Werries E 1986 Cysteine proteinaseof Entamoeba histolytica I. Partial purification and action on different enzymes;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 18 103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tannich E, Ebert F and Horstmann R D 1991 Primary structure of the 170-kilodalton surface lectin of pathogenicEntamoeba histolytica;Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 1849–1853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tannich E, Ebert F and Horstmann R D 1992 Molecular cloning of cDNA and genomic sequences coding for the 35-kilodalton subunit of the galactose-inhibitable lectin of pathogenicEntamoeba histolytica;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 55 225–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tannich E, Scholze H, Nickel R and Horstmann R D 1991 Homologous cysteine proteinase of pathogenic and nonpathogenicE. histolytica;J. Biol. Chem. 266 4798–4803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Tsutsumi V, Mena-Lopez R, Anaya-Velazquez F and Martinez-Palamo A 1984 Cellular basis of experimental amebic liver abscess formation;Am. J. Pathol 117 81–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Vines R R, Purdy J E, Ragland B D, Samuelson J, Mann B J and Petri W A 1995 Stable episomal transfectionof Entamoeba histolytica;Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 71 265–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Walsh J A 1986 Problems in recognition and diagnosis of amoebiasis: estimation of the global magnitude of morbidity and mortality;Rev. Infect. Dis. 8 228–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wittner M and Rosenbaum R M 1970 Role of bacteria in modifying virulenceof Entamoeba histolytica;Am. J, Trop. Med. Hyg. 19 755–761Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devinder Sehgal
    • 1
  • Alok Bhattacharya
    • 1
  • Sudha Bhattacharya
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations