Lipid from yeast fermentation: Effects of cultural conditions on lipid production and its characteristics of rhodotorula glutinis

  • S. H. Yoon
  • J. S. Rhee


To produce lipids from microbial origins, Rhodotorula glutinis (syn. Rhodotorula gracilis) NRRL Y-1091 was cultured in batch and continuous systems under nitrogen- and carbon-limited conditions. The lipid production patterns are shown to be different from each other depending on growing conditions. In continuous cultures under nitrogen-limited conditions, the maximum lipid accumulation was observed at the lowest dilution rate examined, giving the efficiency of substrate conversion of 16.4 g lipid per 100 g glucose consumed. As the dilution rate increased, cell biomass, lipid content, lipid productivity and lipid yield decreased. In carbon-limited continuous cultures, cell biomass decreased with increasing dilution rate, but lipid content remained almost constant. Neutral lipid portions in nitrogen-limited cultured yeast cells decreased as the dilution rate increased, and glyco- and phospholipid portions showed the reverse trend. Major components in the neutral lipid portions in yeast cells are triglyceride, free fatty acid, steryl ester and sterol. Phosphatidylserine was the predominant phospholipid in yeast cells. The dilution rate also affected the fatty acid composition of all lipid portions; polyunsaturated fatty acids increased and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased with increasing dilution rates. The degrees of unsaturation of each lipid class and total lipids were also increased by increasing the dilution rate.


Neutral Lipid Lipid Class Dilution Rate Lipid Production Steryl Ester 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Woodbine, M., Progress in Industrial Microbiology, Vol 1 1959, p. 179.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moon, N.J., and E.G. Hammond, JAOCS 55:683 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ratledge, C., DECHEMA 83:165 (1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ratledge, C., Progress in Industrial Microbiology, Vol 16 1982, p. 120.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ratledge, C., in New Sources in Fats and Oils, edited by E.H. Pryde, L. H. Princen and K.D. Mukerjee, AOCS, Champaign, IL, 1981, p. 159.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ackman, R.G., in New Sources in Fats and Oils, edited by E.H. Pryde, L. H. Princen and K.D. Mukerjee, AOCS, Champaign IL, 1981, p. 189.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enebo, L., L.G. Anderson and H. Lundin, Arch. Biochem. 11: 383(1946).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pan, S.C., A.A. Andreasen and P. Kolachov, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 23:419(1949).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoon, S.H., J.W. Rhim, S.Y. Choi, D.D.Y. Ryu and J.S. Rhee, J. Ferment. Technol. 60:243 (1982).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Enebo, L., and H. Iwamoto, Acta Chem. Scand. 20:439 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kessel, R.H.J., J. Appl. Bacteriol. 31:220 (1968).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krumphanzl, V., V. Gregr, J. Pelechova and J. Uher, Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. No. 4, 245 (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ratledge, C., and M.J. Hall, Appl. Env. Microbiol. 34:230 (1977).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ratledge, C., and M.J. Hall, Biotechnol. Lett. 1:115 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Choi, S.Y., D.D.Y. Ryu and J.S. Rhee, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 24: 1165 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 13th edn., AOAC., Washington, DC., 1980 p. 858.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller, G.L., Anal. Chem. 31:426 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Folch, J., M. Lees and G.H. Sloane-Stanley, J. Biol. Chem 226:497 (1957).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rouser, G., G. Kritchevsky and A. Yamamoto, in Lipid Chromatography Analysis, Edward Arnold, London, 1967, p.99.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Christie, W.W., in Lipid Analysis, Pergamon, Oxford, 1973, p. 85.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee, F.A., and L.R. Mattick, J. Food Sci. 26:273 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gill, C.O., M.J. Hall and C. Ratledge, Appl. Env. Microbiol. 33:231 (1977).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Uzuka, Y., T. Kanamori, T. Koga, K. Tanaka and T. Naganuma, J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 21:157 (1975).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rattray, J.B.M., A. Schibeci and D.K. Kidby, Bacteriol. Rev. 39:197(1975).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kates, M., and R.M. Baxter, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 40: 1213(1962).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rhim, J.W., M.S. Thesis, Korea Adv. Inst. Sci., 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Oil Chemists’ Society 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Yoon
    • 1
  • J. S. Rhee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science and EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologySeoul

Personalised recommendations