Journal of Earth System Science

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 197–207 | Cite as

Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: Examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf

  • E. J. D’Sa
  • C. Hu
  • F. E. Muller-Karger
  • K. L. Carder


Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophylla concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate estimates of these variables using standard ocean color algorithms have been difficult due to the complex nature of the light field in these environments. In this study, we process SeaWiFS satellite data using two recently developed algorithms; one for atmospheric correction and the other a semianalytic bio-optical algorithm and compare the results with standard SeaWiFS algorithms. Overall, the two algorithms produced more realistic estimates of Chl and CDOM distributions in Florida Shelf and Bay waters. Estimates of surface salinity were obtained from the CDOM absorption field assuming a conservative mixing behavior of these waters. A comparison of SeaWiFS-derived Chl and CDOM absorption with field measurements in the Florida Bay indicated that although well correlated, CDOM was underestimated, while Chl was overestimated. Bottom reflectance appeared to affect these estimates at the shallow central Bay stations during the winter. These results demonstrate the need for new bio-optical algorithms or tuning of the parameters used in the bio-optical algorithm for local conditions encountered in the Bay.


Remote sensing SeaWiFS atmospheric correction chlorophylla CDOM salinity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnone R A, Martinolich P, Gould Jr. R W, Stumpf R and Ladner S 1998 Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS;Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA Google Scholar
  2. Blough N V, Zafiriou O C and Bonilla J 1993 Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco river outflow: Terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean;J. Geophys. Res. 98 2271–2278Google Scholar
  3. Boyer J N, Fourqurean J W and Jones R D 1999 Seasonal and long-term trends in the water quality of Florida Bay (1989-1997);Estuaries 22 417–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carder K L, Hawes S K, Baker K A, Smith R C, Steward R G and Mitchell B G 1991 Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophylla in the presence of productivity degradation products;J. Geophys. Res. 96 20599–20611Google Scholar
  5. Carder K L, Chen F R, Lee Z P, Hawes S K and Kamykowski D 1999 Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophylla and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate depletion temperatures;J. Geophys. Res. 104 5403–5421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Sa E J, Steward R G, Vodacek A, Blough N V and Phinney D 1999 Determining optical absorption of colored dissolved organic matter in seawater with a liquid capillary waveguide;Limnol. Oceanogr. 44 1142–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Sa E J, Zaitzeff J B and Steward R G 2000 Monitoring water quality in Florida Bay with remotely sensed salinity andin situ bio-optical observations;Int. J. Remote Sens. 21 811–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. D’Sa E J, Zaitzeff J B, Yentsch C S, Miller J L and Ives R 2002 Rapid remote assessments of salinity and ocean color in Florida Bay; In:The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral reefs of the Florida Keys: An ecosystem sourcebook (eds) J W Porter and K G Porter (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) Chapter 15Google Scholar
  9. Ding K and Gordon H R 1995 Analysis of the influence of O2 A-band absorption on atmospheric correction of oceancolor imagery;Appl. Opt. 34 2068–2080Google Scholar
  10. Fourqurean J W and Robblee M B 1999 Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes;Estuaries 22 345–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garver S A and Siegel D A 1997 Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: I. Time series from the Sargasso sea;J. Geophys. Res. 102 18607–18625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gordon H R, Brown J W and Evans R H 1988 Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner;Appl. Opt. 27 862–871Google Scholar
  13. Gordon H R and Wang M 1994 Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm;Appl. Opt. 33 443–452Google Scholar
  14. Hooker S B, Esaias W E, Feldman G C, Gregg W W and McClain C R 1992 An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color;NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, vol. 1 (eds) S B Hooker and E R Firestone, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, pp. 25 plus color plates.Google Scholar
  15. Hu C, Carder K L and Muller-Karger F E 2000 Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery of turbid coastal waters: a practical method;Remote Sens. Environ. 74 195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu C, Carder K L and Muller-Karger F E 2001 Erratum to “Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: A practical method”;Remote Sens. Environ. 75 447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu C, Muller-Karger F E, Biggs D C, Carder K L, Nababan B, Nadeau D and Vanderbloemen J 2002 Comparison of ship and satellite bio-optical measurements on the continental margin of the NE Gulf of Mexico;Int. J. Remote Sens. (in press)Google Scholar
  18. Le Vine D M, Zaitzeff J B, D’Sa E J, Miller J L, Swift C and Goodberlet M. 2000 Sea surface salinity: Toward an operational remote-sensing system; In:Satellites, Oceanography and Society (eds) D Halpern (Elsevier Science B. V: Amsterdam) pp. 321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee Z, Carder K L, Hawes S K, Steward R G, Peacock T G and Davis C O 1994 Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance;Appl. Opt. 33 5721–5732Google Scholar
  20. McClain C R, Evans R H and Darzi M 1995 SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy;NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, vol. 28 (eds) S B Hooker, E R Firestone and J G Acker, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, pp. 38 plus color plates.Google Scholar
  21. Morel A and Prieur L 1977 Analysis of variations in ocean color;Limnol. Oceanogr. 22 709–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. O’Reilly J E, Maritorena S, Mitchell B G, Siegel D A, Carder K L, Garver S A, Kahru M and McClain C R 1998 Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS;J. Geophys. Res. 103 24937–24953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. O’Reilly J Eet al 2000 Ocean color chlorophylla algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4 In:SeaWiFS Postlaunch calibration and validation analyses, Part 3 (eds) S B Hooker and E R Firestone, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892, vol. 11, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, pp. 9–23Google Scholar
  24. Parsons T R, Maita Y and Lalli C M 1984A manual of chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis (New York: Plenum) pp. 107–110Google Scholar
  25. Phlips E J and Badylak S 1996 Spatial variability in phytoplankton standing crop and composition in a shallow inner-shelf lagoon, Florida Bay, Florida;Bull. Mar. Sci. 58 203–216Google Scholar
  26. Ruddick K G, Ovidio F and Rijkeboer 2000 Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters;Appl. Opt. 39 897–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Siegel D A, Wang M, Maritorena S and Robinson W 2000 Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption;Appl. Opt. 21 3582–3591Google Scholar
  28. Stumpf R R, Frayer M L, Durako M J and Brock J C 1999 Variations in water clarity and bottom albedo in Florida Bay from 1985 to 1997;Estuaries 22 431–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tassan S 1994 Local algorithms using SeaWiFS data for the retrieval of phytoplankton, pigments, suspended sediment, and yellow substance in coastal waters;Appl. Opt. 33 2369–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tilmant J T 1989 A history and an overview of recent trends in the fisheries of Florida Bay;Bull. Mar. Sci. 44 3–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. J. D’Sa
    • 1
  • C. Hu
    • 1
  • F. E. Muller-Karger
    • 1
  • K. L. Carder
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Marine ScienceUniversity of South FloridaSt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations