Liquefaction potentials of a sandy substratum in the south-eastern lower Niger Delta of Nigeria

  • S. Clifford Teme


Most of the materials that constitute the uppermost formation (Benin Formation) of the lower Niger Delta in South-Eastern Nigeria are sands, shales and clays that occur at various depths within the formation. These subsurface materials have served as bearing media for both shallow and deep foundation structures.

The potentials for liquefaction of these often loose and saturated sandy units that occur within the uppermost formation have been assessed for a case where a 1020 KVA Power Generating Set was to be sited.

This Paper attempts to present the results of both field and laboratory tests that have been used to assess the liquefaction potentials of the sandy units at Bori, located within the South-Eastern lower Niger Delta of Nigeria.


Liquefaction Nigeria Bori Project Site Standard Penetration Test 

Etude des risques de liquéfaction d’un sol de fondation sableux dans le Delta du Niger, Nigéria


La plupart des matériaux qui constituent la formation la plus supérieure (Formation du Benin) du delta du Niger au Sud-Est du Nigéria, sont des sables, des argilites et des argiles qu’on trouve à des profondeurs variables dans cette formation. Ces matériaux ont constituté les sols de fondation aussi bien pour des fondations superficielles que profondes.

Les risques de liquéfaction des niveaux sableux, souvent lâches et saturés ont été étudiés lorsqu’il s’est agi d’implanter une centrale électrique.

L’article présente les essais in situ et en laboratoire qui ont été réalisées pour cette évaluation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. CASAGRANDE A. (1976): Liquefaction and cyclic Deformation of Sand —Critical Review. Harvard Soil Mechanics Series No. 88 Harvard University, Cambridge, MASS.Google Scholar
  2. CASTRO G. and S.J. POULOS (1976): Factors affecting Liquefaction and cyclic mobility. Symposium on Soil Liquefaction, ASCE National Convention, Philadelphia, pp. 105–138.Google Scholar
  3. CHRISTIAN J.T. and W.F. SWIGER (1975): Statistics of Liquefaction and SPT Results. J. Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASCE. Vol. 101 No. GT11, pp. 1135–1150.Google Scholar
  4. FINN W.D.L., P.L. BRANSBY and D.J. PICKERING (1970): Effects of Strain History on Liquefaction of Sands. J. Soil Mech. Found Div. ASCE Vol. 96, No. SM6, pp. 1917–1934.Google Scholar
  5. FINN W.D.L., K.W. LEE and G.R. MARTIN (1976): Seismic Porewater Pressure Generation and Dissipation, Symposium on Soil Liquefaction; ASCE National Convention, Philadelphia, pp. 169–198.Google Scholar
  6. GUPTA M.K. (1979): Liquefaction of Sands During Earthquakes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India.Google Scholar
  7. HARDIN B.O. (1978): The Nature of Stress-strain Behaviour of Soils; State of the Art Report, Proc. ASCE Specialty Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics Pasadena, pp. 3–90.Google Scholar
  8. HARDIN B.O. and W.L. BLACK (1969): Closure to Vibration Modulus of Normally Consolidated Clays. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. ASCE Vol. 95 No. SM6, pp. 1531–1537.Google Scholar
  9. MILLER G.F. and H. PURSEY (1954): The Field and Radiation Impedance of Mechanical Radiators on the Free Surface of a Semi-infinite Isotropic Solid, Proc. R. Soc. London, Vol. 223, pp. 521–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. MILLER G.F. and H. PURSEY (1955): On the Partition of Energy between elastic waves in a semi-infinite Solid. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A. Vol. 233, pp. 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. PECK R.B., W.E. HANSON and T.H. THORNBURN (1974): Foundation Engineering, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York 514 pages.Google Scholar
  12. PRAKASH S. (1981): Soil Dynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 426 pages.Google Scholar
  13. PRAKASH S. and M.K. GUPTA (1970): Report on Dynamic Properties of Soil for Diesel Power House Nakodar, Earthquake Engineering Studies, School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India.Google Scholar
  14. PRAKASH S. and M.K. GUPTA (1971): Report on Dynamic Properties of Soils for Diesel Power House Sirhind. Earthquakes Engineering Studies, School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India.Google Scholar
  15. RICHART F.E., J.R. HALL Jr., and R.D. WOODS, (1970): Vibrations of Soils and Foundations. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  16. SEED H.B. (1976), Some aspects of sand liquefaction under cyclic loading: Conference on Behaviour of off-shore structures. The Norwegian Institute of Technology, Norway.Google Scholar
  17. SEED H.B. (1979); Soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility evaluation for level ground during earthquakes. J. Geotech. Engineering Dic. ASCE Vol. 105, No. GT2, pp. 201–255.Google Scholar
  18. SEED H.B. and I.M. IDRISS, (1967); Analysis of soil liquefaction—Niigata Earthquake. J. Soil Mech. Found. Eng. Div., ASCE. Vol. 93, No. SM3, pp. 83–108.Google Scholar
  19. SEED H.B. and I.M. IDRISS (1971); Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potentials. J. Soil Mech. Found Eng. Div. ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM9; pp. 1249–1273.Google Scholar
  20. SEED H.B. and K.L. LEE (1966); Liquefaction of saturated sands during cyclic loading. J. Soil Mech. Found. Eng. Div.; ASCE, Vol. 92, No. SM6, pp. 105–134.Google Scholar
  21. SHELL B.P. Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Geological Series Maps (1962); Sheet 84—Port Harcourt.Google Scholar
  22. TEKS Geotechnical Consultants (1988); Subsurface investigation for the generator house foundation at the Rivers State Polytechnic Bori. Report of investigation for the Govering Council, Rivers State Polytechnic, Bori. 132 p.Google Scholar
  23. WOODS R.D. (1968); Screening of surface waves in soils. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE Vol. 94, No. SM4, pp. 951–979.Google Scholar
  24. WOODS R.D. (1978); Measurement of Dynamic soil properties—state of the Art. Proc. ASCE specialty Conference on Engineering and soil Dynamics, Pasadena.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Assocaition of Engineering eology 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Clifford Teme
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Flood, Erosion, Reclamation and Transportation (IFERT)Rivers State University of Science and TechnologyPort HarcourtNigeria

Personalised recommendations