The structural strengths of solutions of polyacrylamide, guar gum, and KMTs saturated with ammonium nitrate increase with the thickener concentration. For concentrations above 1.5% the strongest structure is that of polyacrylamide (PAA) solutions.
The greatest degree of swelling in the presence of ammonium nitrate is possessed by PAA; however, it swells slower than guar gum of KMTs by a factor of 2–2.5.
The investigated thickener gels retard the diffusion of ammonium nitrate; however, KMTs gels are more permeable to diffusing nitrate than PAA and guar gum gels.
PAA imparts high stability to water gel explosives with respect to demixing, in comparison with KMTs.
The greatest water resistance is that of compositions thickened with PAA; their nitrate losses are less than those of KMTs-based or guar gum-based compositions by factors of 2–2.5 and 1.3–1.4, respectively.
Akvatols based on PAA, guar gum, and KMTs posses high density, which is practically independent of the thickener type.
The chemical stabilities of Akvatol compositions with aluminum based on purified KMTs, guar gum, and PAA are similar and greater than those of compositions based on commercial KMTs.
The type of thickener does not affect the sensitivity of Akvatol 65/35 to mechanical actions.
New grades of Akvatol, developed on the basis of PAA and tested in industrial conditions, have high water resistance and density, and can replace costly explosives used to charge waterlogged blast holes.
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Bakhtin, A.K., Selivanova, N.V. The influence of the type of thickening agent on the properties and effectiveness of water-gel explosives. Soviet Mining Science 10, 42–46 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02501604
- Ammonium Nitrate
- Blast Hole
- Thickener Type
- Nitrate Loss