Acta Mechanica Sinica

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 282–288 | Cite as

Perturbation of symmetries of Birkhoff system and adiabatic invariants

  • Chen Xiangwei
  • Zhang Ruichao
  • Mei Fengxiang


The perturbation of symmetries of the free Birkhoff system under small excitation is discussed. The concept of high-order adiabatic invariant is presented, and the form of adiabatic invariants and the conditions for their existence are given. Then these results are generalized to the constrained Birkhoff system. One example is presented to illustrate these results.

Key Words

Birkhoff system symmetry perturbation adiabatic invariants 


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Copyright information

© Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen Xiangwei
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhang Ruichao
    • 1
  • Mei Fengxiang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied MechanicsBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsShangqui Teachers CollegeShangqiuChina

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