Advertisement

Foundations of Physics

, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp 1191–1212 | Cite as

Bell's theorem and the nature of reality

  • R. A. Bertlmann
Part I. Invited Papers Dedicated To John Stewart Bell

Abstract

We rediscuss the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in Bohm's spin version and oppose to it Bohr's controversial point of view. Then we explain Bell's theorem, Bell inequalities, and its consequences. We describe the experiment of Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger in detail. Finally we draw attention to the nonlocal structure of the underlying theory.

Keywords

Bell Inequality Controversial Point Spin Version Nonlocal Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. S. Bell, “Bertlmann's socks and the nature of reality,”J. Phys. 42, Colloque C-2, suppl. au No. 3, March 1981; see also J. S. Bell, Ref. 44, p. 139.Google Scholar
  2. 2. (a)
    D. M. Greenberger, ed., “New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory,”Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 480, 1 (1986);Google Scholar
  3. 2. (b)
    A. van der Merwe, F. Selleri, and G. Tarozzi, eds.,Microphysical Reality and Quantum Formalism (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1988);Google Scholar
  4. 2. (c)
    P. Lahti and P. Mittelstaedt, eds.,Symposium on the Foundations of Modern Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985);Google Scholar
  5. 2. (d)
    Laura M. Roth and Ahira Inomata, eds.,Fundamental Questions in Quantum Mechanics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1984).Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    P. A. Schilpp, Hrsg.,Albert Einstein als Philosoph und Naturforscher (Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1983); English edition: P. A. Schilpp, ed.,Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (Open Court, La Salle, Illinois, 1949).Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen,Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 5.
    N. Bohr,Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935).Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    D. Bohm,Quantum Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1951).Google Scholar
  10. 7.
    A. Einstein-Max Born Briefwechsel 1916–1955, (rororo Rowohlt, Reinbeck, Hamburg, 1972); English edition:The Born-Einstein Letters (Macmillan, London, 1971).Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    A. Petersen,Bull. At. Sci.,XIX (7), 8 (1963).Google Scholar
  12. 9. (a)
    M. Stöckler, “EPR, relativity and realism,” in Ref. 12, p. 301;Google Scholar
  13. 9. (b)
    M. Stöckler, “Philosophen in der Mikrowelt—ratlos?”Z. allgem. Wissenschaftstheorie XVII (1), 68 (1986).Google Scholar
  14. 10. (a)
    K. R. Popper, “Realism and a proposal for a simplified new variant of the EPR experiment,” in Ref. 12, p. 227;Google Scholar
  15. 10. (b)
    K. R. Popper,Found. Phys. 12, 971 (1982).Google Scholar
  16. 11.
    H. Putman,Phys. Bl. 42 (4), 107 (1986).Google Scholar
  17. 12.
    P. Weingartner and G. Dorn, eds.,Foundations of Physics (Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, Vienna, 1986).Google Scholar
  18. 13.
    B. Kanitscheider, Hrsg.,Moderne Naturphilosophie (Königshausen und Neumann, Würzburg, 1984).Google Scholar
  19. 14.
    K. Przibram Hrsg.,Schrödinger, Planck, Einstein, Lorentz-Briefe zur Wellenmechanik (Springer, Vienna, 1963), p. 29.Google Scholar
  20. 15.
    J. von Neumann,Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Springer, Berlin, 1932); English edition: J. von Neumann,Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1955).Google Scholar
  21. 16.
    J. J. Sakurai,Modern Quantum Mechanics (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, 1985).Google Scholar
  22. 17.
    D. Bohm,Phys. Rev. 85, 166, 180 (1952).Google Scholar
  23. 18.
    D. Bohm and B. J. Hiley,Found. Phys. 14, 255 (1984).Google Scholar
  24. 19. (a)
    J. S. Bell,Int. J. Quant. Chem. (Quantum Chemistry Symposium)14, 155 (1980);Google Scholar
  25. 19. (b)
    J. S. Bell, “Quantum mechanics for cosmologists,” in C. J. Isham, R. Penrose, and D. W. Sciama, eds.,Quantum Gravity 2 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1981), p. 611.Google Scholar
  26. 20.
    H. D. Zeh,Found. Phys. 18, 723 (1988).Google Scholar
  27. 21.
    F. J. Belinfante,A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories (Pergamon, New York, 1973).Google Scholar
  28. 22.
    J. S. Bell,Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 (1966).Google Scholar
  29. 23.
    F. Selleri, “The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox fifty years later,” in H. Kleinpoppen, J. S. Briggs, and H. O. Lutz, eds.,Fundamental Processes in Atomic Collision Physics (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 421.Google Scholar
  30. 24.
    J. S. Bell,Physics 1, 195 (1964).Google Scholar
  31. 25.
    J. S. Bell, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments,” inProceedings, Symposium on Frontier Problems in High-Energy Physics, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, 1976, p. 33.Google Scholar
  32. 26. (a)
    B. d'Espagnat,Phys. Rep. 110, 201 (1984);Google Scholar
  33. 26. (b)
    B. d'Espagnat,Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Benjamin, Reading, Massachusetts, 1976);Google Scholar
  34. 26. (c)
    B. d'Espagnat, InSearch of Reality (Springer, New York, 1983).Google Scholar
  35. 27. (a)
    F. Selleri, ed.,Quantum Mechanics versus Local Realism: The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox (Plenum, New York, 1988);Google Scholar
  36. 27. (b)
    F. Selleri, “History of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” in Ref. 27(a), p. 1;Google Scholar
  37. 27. (c)
    H. P. Stapp, “Are faster-than-light influences necessary?,” in Ref. 27(a), p. 63.Google Scholar
  38. 28.
    P. H. Eberhard, “The EPR paradox: Roots and ramifications,” preprint Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory LBL-24199, 1987;Quantum Theory and Pictures of Reality, W. Schommers, ed. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1989).Google Scholar
  39. 29.
    K. Baumann and R. Sexl,Die Deutungen der Quantentheorie (Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1984).Google Scholar
  40. 30.
    F. Selleri,Die Debatte um die Quantentheorie (Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1983);Quantum Paradoxes and Physical Reality (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1990).Google Scholar
  41. 31.
    M. Jammer,The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1974).Google Scholar
  42. 32.
    J. F. Clauser and A. Shimony,Rep. Prog. Phys. 41, 1881 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 33.
    B. d'Espagnat,Sci. Am., Nov. 1979, p. 128.Google Scholar
  44. 34.
    N. D. Mermin,Physics Today, April 1985, p. 38.Google Scholar
  45. 35. (a)
    J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt,Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969);Google Scholar
  46. 35. (b)
    J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne,Phys. Rev. D 10, 526 (1974).Google Scholar
  47. 36.
    J. S. Bell, “Introduction to the hidden-variable question,” inFoundations of Quantum Mechanics (Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”), B. d'Espagnat, ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1971), p. 171.Google Scholar
  48. 37. (a)
    A. Aspect,Phys. Rev. D 14, 1944 (1976);Google Scholar
  49. 37. (b)
    A, Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Roger,Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460 (1981);Google Scholar
  50. 37. (c)
    A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Roger,Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 91 (1982);Google Scholar
  51. 37. (d)
    A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger,Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804 (1982);Google Scholar
  52. 37. (e)
    A. Aspect and P. Grangier,Lett. Nuovo Cimento 43, 345 (1985).Google Scholar
  53. 38.
    S. J. Freedman and J. F. Clauser,Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 938 (1972).Google Scholar
  54. 39.
    A. Zeilinger,Phys. Lett. 118A, 1 (1986).Google Scholar
  55. 40. (a)
    H. Rauch, W. Treimer, and U. Bonse,Phys. Lett. 47A, 369 (1974);Google Scholar
  56. 40. (b)
    G. Badurek, H. Rauch, and D. Tuppinger, “Polarized neutron interferomtry,” in Ref. 2a, p. 133.Google Scholar
  57. 41. (a)
    D. M. Greenberger, “The neutron interferometer and the quantum mechanical super-position principle,” in Ref. 2d, p. 117;Google Scholar
  58. 41. (b)
    S. Werner, “Neutron Interferometry at Missouri,” in Ref. 2a, p. 147.Google Scholar
  59. 42.
    Y. Aharanov and D. Bohm,Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 43. (a)
    A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, R. Suzuki, A. Fukuhara, N. Osakabe, H. Umezaki, J. Endo, K. Shinagawa, Y. Sugita, and H. Fujiwara,Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1443 (1982);Google Scholar
  61. 43. (b)
    A. Tonomura, “Experimental confirmation of the Aharanov-Bohm effect by electron holography,” in Ref. 2d, p. 169.Google Scholar
  62. 44.
    J. S. Bell,Speakable and Unspeakable in quantum Mechanics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987). This is a collection of Bell papers concerning quantum mechanics.Google Scholar
  63. 45.
    G. C. Ghirardi, A. Rimini, and T. Weber,Phys. Rev. D 34, 470 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 46.
    J. S. Bell, “Are there quantum jumps?,” in C. W. Kilmister, ed.,Schrödinger-Centenary Celebration of a Polymath (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987), p. 41; see also J. S. Bell, Ref. 44, p. 201.Google Scholar
  65. 47.
    J. S. Bell, “Beables for quantum field theory,” preprint CERN-TH.4035/84, 1984; see also J. S. Bell, Ref. 44, p. 173.Google Scholar
  66. 48.
    F. M. Pipkin, in D. R. Bates, and B. Bederson, eds.,Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics (Academic Press, New York, 1978), Vol. 14, p. 281.Google Scholar
  67. 49.
    A. J. Duncan and H. Kleinpoppen, “The experimental investigation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen question and Bell's Inequality,” in Ref. 27a, p. 175.Google Scholar
  68. 50.
    N. A. Törnqvist, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments using the decays of ηc orJ/Ψ into\(\Lambda \bar \Lambda \to \pi ^ - p\pi ^ + \bar p\),” in Ref. 27a, p. 115.Google Scholar
  69. 51.
    D. Home, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for the\(K^\circ \bar K^\circ \) and\(B^\circ \bar B^\circ \) systems,” in Ref. 27a, p. 133.Google Scholar
  70. 52.
    R. A. Holt and F. M. Pipkin, “Quantum mechanics versus hidden variables: polarization correlation measurement on an atomic mercury cascade,” Harvard preprint, 1974.Google Scholar
  71. 53.
    J. F. Clauser,Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1223 (1976).Google Scholar
  72. 54.
    E. S. Fry and R. C. Thompson,Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 465 (1976).Google Scholar
  73. 55.
    W. Perrie, A. J. Duncan, H. J. Beyer, and H. Kleinpoppen,Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1790, 2647 (E) (1985).Google Scholar
  74. 56.
    L. R. Kasday, J. D. Ullmann, and C. S. Wu,Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 586 (1970);Nuovo Cimento B 25, 633 (1975).Google Scholar
  75. 57.
    G. Faraci, D. Gutkowski, S. Notarrigo, and A. R. Pennisi,Nuovo Cimento Lett. 9, 607 (1974).Google Scholar
  76. 58.
    A. R. Wilson, J. Lowe, and D. K. Butt,J. Phys. G 2, 613 (1976).Google Scholar
  77. 59.
    M. Bruno, M. D'Agostino, and C. Maroni,Nuovo Cimento B 40, 143 (1977).Google Scholar
  78. 60.
    G. Bertolini, E. Diana, and A. Scotti,Nuovo Cimento B 63, 651 (1981).Google Scholar
  79. 61.
    M. Lamehi-Rachti and W. Mittig,Phys. Rev. D 14, 2543 (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Bertlmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations