Amino Acids

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 141–153 | Cite as

Amino acids in honeybee worker haemolymph

  • K. Crailsheim
  • B. Leonhard
Full Papers


In honeybee workers proline was the predominant amino acid and comprised from 50% in newly emerged bees up to 80% of total amino acids from the 3rd day on. The overall concentration averaged at about 20 mM in newly emerging bees, rose to a maximum of about 25mM at the 3rd–5th day and decreased in older bees. Essential amino acids decreased by 40% during the first 3 days and thereafter stayed constant. The bulk of amino acids with a lower concentration (from traces to about 2mM) showed either no change in concentration or was higher in newly emerging bees and decreased during the lifespan of the insects. Forager bees, collected after flight, had significantly lower proline concentrations as compared to 22 day old bees collected from the colony, while the concentrations of the bulk of all other amino acids did not change significantly. There was a great variance in the concentration of all amino acids between different colonies but we could not prove dependency on relatedness.


Amino acids Apis mellifera Free amino acids DABS-Amino acids Haemolymph Age dependency 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Crailsheim
    • 1
  • B. Leonhard
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für ZoologieKarl-Franzens-Universität GrazGrazAustria

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