Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 79–88 | Cite as

The illustrated conversation

  • Judith S. Donath


Collaboration-at-a-Glance is a program which provides a visual interface to an online conversation. Although the participants in the conversation may be at widely separate locations, the interface provides a visible shared electronic space for their interactions. The participants each have a first person view-point from which they can see who else is present and who is communicating with whom. In the first part of this paper, I describe the current implementation. In the second part of the paper, I discuss some of issues involved in expanding it to supplement an ongoing conversation with additional expressive information.


groupware collaboration facial display social visualization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. Agawa, G. Xu, Y. Nagashim, and K. Fumio, “Image analysis for face modeling and facial image reconstruction,” Proceedings of SPIE: Visual Communications and Image Processing, Vol. 1360, 1184–1197, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Brennan, “Caricature generator,” Master's Thesis, MIT, 1982.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Brilliant, Portraiture, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Bull, “What does gesture add to the spoken word,” in (H. Barlow, C. Blakemore, and M. Weston-Smith, eds.), Images and Understanding, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 108–121, 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Burke, “The Art of Conversation,” Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.C. Choi, K. Aizawa, H. Harashima, and T. Tsuyoshi, “Analysis and synthesis of facial image sequences in model-based image coding,” in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 4, 257–275, 1994.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Curtis, “Mudding: social phenomena in text-based virtual realities,” Proceedings of the 1992 Conference on Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing, Berkeley, May 1992.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Donath, “Casual collaboration,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Dourish and S. Bly, “Portholes: Supporting Awareness in a Distributed Work Group,” Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems, CHI '92, Monterey, CA.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Goffman, “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,” New York: Doubleday, 1959.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.H. Gombrich, “The mask and the face: the perception of physiognomic likeness in life and in art,” in Art, Perception and Reality, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1–46, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Hochberg, Perception, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Hochberg, “The representation of things and people,” in Art, Perception and Reality, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 47–94, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reinhard Koch, “Adaptation of a 3D Facial Mask to Human Faces in Videophone Sequences using Model Based Image Analysis,” Proceedings of the Picture Coding Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, 285–288, 1991.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Morishima, K. Aizawa, and H. Harashima, “A real-time facial action image synthesis sytem driven by speech and text,” in SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing, Vol. 1360, 1151–1158, 1990.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Pearson, E. Hanna, and K. Martinez, “Computer Generated Cartoons,” in (H. Barlow, C. Blakemore, and M. Weston-Smith, eds.), Images and Understanding, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 46–60, 1990.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Reid, “Electropolis: Communication and community on internet relay chat,” Thesis, Dept. of History, University of Melbourne, 1991.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Rheingold, “The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier,” MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1993.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Sproull and S. Kiesler, “Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization,” Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Sproull and S. Faraj, “Atheism, sex, and databases: the net as a social technology,” Forthcoming in (B. Kahin and J. Keller, eds.) Public Access to the Internet, Prentice-Hall, 1993.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Sproull, R. Subramani, J. Walker, and S. Kiesler, “When the interface is a face,” Unpublished manuscript, 1994.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Takeuchi and K. Nagao, “Communicative facial displays as a new conversational modality,” in Proceedings of Interchi '93, ACM Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E.R. Tufte, “Envisioning Information,” Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Waters and D. Terzopoulos, “The Computer Synthesis of Expressive Faces,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 335, 87–93, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith S. Donath
    • 1
  1. 1.MIT Media LabUSSR

Personalised recommendations