Communications in Mathematical Physics

, Volume 88, Issue 3, pp 295–308 | Cite as

Positive mass theorems for black holes

  • G. W. Gibbons
  • S. W. Hawking
  • Gary T. Horowitz
  • Malcolm J. Perry


We extend Witten's proof of the positive mass theorem at spacelike infinity to show that the mass is positive for initial data on an asymptotically flat spatial hypersurface Σ which is regular outside an apparent horizonH. In addition, we prove that if a black hole has electromagnetic charge, then the mass is greater than the modulus of the charge. These results are also valid for the Bondi mass at null infinity. Finally, in the case of the Einstein equation with a negative cosmological constant, we show that a suitably defined mass is positive for data on an asymptotically anti-de Sitter surface Σ which is regular outside an apparent horizon.


Neural Network Black Hole Statistical Physic Complex System Initial Data 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. W. Gibbons
    • 1
  • S. W. Hawking
    • 1
  • Gary T. Horowitz
    • 2
  • Malcolm J. Perry
    • 3
  1. 1.D.A.M.T.P.University of CambridgeCambridgeEngland
  2. 2.Institute for Advanced StudyPrincetonUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of PhysicsPrinceton UniversityUSA

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