The synthetic pyrethroid, permethrin, when applied to clothing with a pressurized spray at an application rate estimated previously to be 4 μg a.i./cm2, was found to be 100% effective for personal protection against all three parasitic stages of the western black-legged tick,Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls. This tick has been implicated as the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to humans in the far-western United States. Periods of exposure to permethrin-treated cloth as brief as 10 and 45 seconds incapacitated 100% of subadult and adult ticks, respectively, within 1–3 h post-treatment. Under field conditions, permethrin appareatly does not repel questing adult ticks, though 100% of ticks recovered from treated clothing after exposures as brief as ≤15 seconds were moribund 1 h later.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Anonymous, 1985. Update: Lyme disease and cases occurring during pregnancy — United States. Centers for Disease Control, Morb. Mortal. Week. Rep., 34: 376–378, and 383–384.
Buescher, M.D., Rutledge, L.C. and Wirtz, R.A., 1987. Studies on the comparative effectiveness of permethrin and deet against bloodsucking arthropods. Pestic. Sci., 21: 165–173.
Burgdorfer, W., Lane, R.S., Barbour, A.G., Gresbrink, R.A. and Anderson, J.R., 1985. The western black-legged tick,Ixodes pacificus: A vector ofBorrelia burgdorferi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 34: 925–930.
Davis, G.E. and Kohls, G.M., 1937.Ixodes ricinus californicus (Banks), a possible vector ofBacterium tularense. Publ. Health Rep., 52: 281–282.
Furman, D.P. and Loomis, E.C., 1984. The ticks of California (Acari: Ixodida). Bull. Calif. Insect Surv., 25: 1–239.
Hughes, L.E., Clifford, C.M., Gresbrink, R., Thomas, L.A. and Keirans, J.E., 1976. Isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from the Pacific Coast tick,Ixodes pacificus, in Oregon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 25: 513–516.
Lane, R.S. and Anderson, J.R., 1984. Efficacy of permethrin as a repellent and toxicant for personal protection against the Pacific Coast tick and the pajaroello tick (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae). J. Med. Entomol., 21: 692–702.
Lane, R.S. and Lavoie, P.E., 1988. Lyme borreliosis in California: Acarological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 539: 192–203.
Mehr, Z.A., Rutledge, L.C., Morales, E.L. and Inase, J.L., 1986. Laboratory evaluation of commercial and experimental repellents againstOrnithodoros parkeri (Acari: Argasidae). J. Med. Entomol., 23: 136–140.
Mount, G.A. and Snoddy, E.L., 1983. Pressurized sprays of permethrin and deet on clothing for personal protection against the lone star tick and the American dog tick (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 76: 529–531.
Naversen, D.N. and Gardner, L.W., 1978.Erythema chronicum migrans in America. Arch. Dermatol., 114: 253–254.
Schreck, C.E., Snoddy, E.L. and Mount, G.A., 1980. Permethrin and repellents as clothing impregnants for protection from the lone star tick. J. Econ. Entomol., 73: 436–439.
Schreck, C.E., Mount, G.A. and Carlson, D.A., 1982. Pressurized sprays of permethrin on clothing for personal protection against the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 75: 1059–1061.
Schreck, C.E., Snoddy, E.L. and Spielman, A., 1986. Pressurized sprays of permethrin or deet on military clothing for personal protection againstIxodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol., 23: 396–399.
Westrom, D.R., Lane, R.S. and Anderson, J.R., 1985.Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae): Population dynamics and distribution on Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). J. Med. Entomol., 22: 507–511.
Zar, J.H., 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 718 pp.
About this article
Cite this article
Lane, R.S. Treatment of clothing with a permethrin spray for personal protection against the western black-legged tick,Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 6, 343–352 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01193304
- Field Condition
- Application Rate
- Lyme Disease
- Borrelia Burgdorferi
- Parasitic Stage