Skip to main content

Phosphorus seed coating increases phosphorus uptake, early growth and yield of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) grown on an acid sandy soil in Niger, West Africa

Abstract

In pot and field experiments conducted in 1990 and 1991 on an acid sandy, phosphorus (P) deficient soil in Niger, West Africa, the effect of seed coating on seedling emergence, early growth and grain yield of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) was studied. Seeds of pearl millet were coated with different rates (0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 5.0; 10.0 mg P seed−1) and types of P fertilizers (single superphosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate; monocalcium phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate and sodium triphosphate). Seedling emergence was generally reduced at coating rates higher than 0.5 mg P seed−1 and prevented with single superphosphate and sodium triphosphate at rates higher than 5 mg P seed−1. No correlation was found between the pH and osmomolity of the coatings and final emergence of millet seedlings. The most favourable effect on plant growth and P content was achieved with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (AHP) as seed coating. This was attributed to the enhancement effect of ammonium on P uptake. Compared to the untreated control dry matter production at 20 days after planting (DAP) was increased by 280%, P content per plant by 330%, total biomass at maturity by 30% and grain yield by 45%. Although seed coating with AHP may be harmful to seedlings emergence, it represents a suitable method to enhance early growth and increase yield of pearl millet.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Abdou FM and El-Kobbia T (1976) Effect of seed pretreatment with phosphorus on the yield and phosphorus uptake by barley. Agrochimica 20: 29–36

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ascher JS, Scott JM and Jessop RS (1987) Tolerance of a range of crop species to seed coatings with monocalcium phosphate. Proc 4th Aust Soc of Agron, Melbourne, 239 p

  3. 3.

    Banzhaf J (1988) Auswirkungen von Windschutzstreifen aus Brachlandvegetation auf Wachstum und Ertragsbildung von Perlhirse (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) und Cowpea (Vigna uniculata (L.) Walp.) im südlichen Sahel Westafrikas. PhD thesis, University of Hohenheim, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Blair GJ, Miller MH and Mitchell WA (1970) Nitrate and ammonium as sources of nitrogen for corn and their influence on the uptake of other ions. Agron J 62: 530–532

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Christianson CB, Bationo A and Baethgen WE (1990) The effect of soil tillage and fertilizer use on pearl millet yields in Niger. Plant Soil 123: 51–58

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cowie AM and Asher CJ (1986) Effects of nitrogen stress at particular growth stages on yield and grain nitrogen concentration in hybrid grain sorghum. In: Foale MA and Henzell RG (eds) Australian Sorghum Conference, pp 6.79–6.89. Qld. Agric. College, Lawes: Gatton

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dey G, Dhillon NS and Sidhu AS (1980) Plant analysis for nitrogen to maximize maize (Zea mays L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) yields. J Ind Soc Soil Sci 28: 412–414

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dick RP and Tabatabai MA (1987) Polyphosphates as sources of phosphorus for plants. Fert Res 12: 107–118

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Dinkelaker B (1990) Genotypische Unterschiede in der Phosphateffizienz von Kichererbse (Cicer arietinum L.) Ph D thesis, University of Hohenheim, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Dodd J, Krikum J and Haas J (1983) Relative effectiveness of indigenous populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from four sites in Negev. Isr J Bot 32: 10–21

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Engelstad OP and Allen SE (1971) Effect of form and proximity of added N on crop uptake of P. Soil Sci 112: 330–337

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    FAO (1986) 1986 FAO production yearbook. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Fox RL, Nishimoto RK, Thompson JR and de la Pena RS (1974) Comparative external phosphorus requirements of plants growing in tropical soils. Trans 10th Int Congr Soil Sci 4: 232–239

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Gericke S and Kurmies B (1952) Die kolorimetrische Phosphorsäurebestimmung mit Ammonium-Vanadat-Molybdat und ihre Anwendung in der Pflanzenanalyse. Z Pflanzenernähr Düng Bodenkd 59: 235–247

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Guttay JR (1957) The effect of fertilizer on the germination of wheat and oats. Mich Agric Exp Stn Q Bull 40: 193–202

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Hall JR and Hodges TK (1966) Phosphorus metabolism of germinating oat seeds. Plant Physiol 41: 1459–1464

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hathcock AL, Dernoeden PH, Turner TR and McIntosh MS (1984) Tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass response to fertilizer and lime seed coatings. Agron J 76: 879–882

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Hay RJM (1973) The effect of coating and pelleting on germination and establishment of some grasses. Ph D thesis, University of Canterbury, Lincoln College, NZ

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    ICRISAT (1981) Research bull No. 6. In: Maiti RK and Bidinger FR (eds) Growth and development of the pearl millet plant. ICRISAT Patancheru

  20. 20.

    Jensen A (1982) Influence of four vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient uptake and growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare). New Phytol 90: 45–50

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Koide RT, Li M, Lewis J and Irby C (1988) Role of mycorrhizal infection in the growth and reproduction of wild vs. cultivated plants. I. Wild vs. cultivated oats. Oecologia 77: 537–543

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kretzschmar RM, Hafner H, Bationo A and Marschner H (1991) Long- and short-term effects of crop residues on aluminum toxicity, phosphorus availability and growth of pearl millet in an acid sandy soil. Plant Soil 136: 215–223

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Krigel L (1967) The early requirement for plant nutrients by subterraneum clover seedlings (Trifolium subterraneum). Aust J Agric Res 18: 879–886

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Leikam DF, Murphy LS, Kissel DE, Whitney DA and Moser HC (1983) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus application method and nitrogen source on winter wheat grain yield and leaf tissue phosphorus. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 530–535

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Leonce FS and Miller MH (1966) A physiological effect of nitrogen on phosphorus absorption by corn. Agron J 58: 245–249

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Marschner H, Roemheld V, Horst WJ and Martin P (1986) Root-induced changes in the rhizosphere: Importance for the mineral nutrition of plants. Z Pflanzenernähr Bodenkd 149: 441–456

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    McWilliam JR and Phillips PJ (1971) Effect of osmotic and matric potentials on the availability of water for seed germination. Aust J Biol Sci 24: 423–431

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Menary RC (1967) Studies in the phosphorus nutrition of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Hill) Ph D Thesis. University of Queensland, Brisbane

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ningping L and Barber SA (1985) Phosphorus uptake rate and growth characteristics of wheat roots. J Plant Nutr 8: 449–456

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Payne WA, Lascano RJ, Hossner LR, Wendt CW and Onken AB (1991) Pearl millet growth as affected by phosphorus and water. Agron J 83: 942–948

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Rader LF, White LM and Whittaker CW (1943) The salt index - a measure of the effect of fertilizers on the concentration of the soil solution. Soil Sci 55: 201–218

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Read DWL (1983) Residual phosphorus increase the P content of wheat. Better Crops 67: 26–27

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Schenk NC and Smith GS (1982) Response of six species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their effects on soybean at four soil temperatures. New Phytol 92: 193–201

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Scott D (1975) Effect of seed coating on establishment. N Z J Agric Res 18: 59–67

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Scott D and Hay RJ (1974) Some physical and nutritional effects of seed coating. Proc 12th Int Grassld Congr Moscow. Iglovikov VG and Movsisyants AP (eds) Vol I, Part II, pp 523-531

  36. 36.

    Scott JM, Mitchel CJ and Blair GJ (1985) Effect of nutrient seed coating on the emergence and early growth of perennial ryegrass. Aust J Agric Res 36: 221–231

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Scott JM, Jessop RS, Steer RJ and McLachlan GD (1987) Effect of nutrient seed coating on the emergence of wheat and oats. Fert Res 14: 205–217

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Scott JM and Blair GJ (1988) Phosphorus seed coatings for pasture species. I. Effect of source and rate of phosphorus on emergence and early growth of phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). Aust J Agric Res 38: 437–445

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Scott JM, Hill CB and Jessop RS (1991) Growth chamber study of phosphorus applied as drilled granules or as seed coatings to wheat sown in soils differing in P-sorption capacity. Fert Res 29: 281–287

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Silcock RG and Smith FT (1982) Seed coating and localized application of phosphate for improving seedlings growth of grasses on acid, sandy red earths. Aust J Agric Res 33: 785–802

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Sivakumar WVK (1986) Climate of Niamey. Agroclimatology Progress Report Report 1, ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niamey, Niger

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Smid AE and Bates TE (1971) Response of corn to small amounts of fertilizer placed with the seed: V. Seed coating compared with banding. Agron J 63: 380–384

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Sutton PJ, Peterson GA and Sander DH (1983) Dry matter production in tops and roots of winter wheat as affected by phosphorus availability during various growth stages. Agron J 75: 657–663

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    West LT, Wilding LP, Landeck JK and Calhoun FG (1984) Soil survey of the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niger, West Africa. Soil and Crop Sciences Department/TropSoils, Texas A&M University System, College Station Texas

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rebafka, F.P., Bationo, A. & Marschner, H. Phosphorus seed coating increases phosphorus uptake, early growth and yield of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) grown on an acid sandy soil in Niger, West Africa. Fertilizer Research 35, 151–160 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00750633

Download citation

Key words

  • emergence
  • pearl millet
  • P seed coating
  • plant development
  • P uptake
  • West Africa