Electrical characteristics and reheat-treatment effects in a ZnO varistor fabricated by two-stage heat-treatment

Abstract

Conventional ZnO varistors are generally fabricated by sintering ZnO powder mixed with additives such as Bi2O3, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, Co2O3, and MnO2. To reduce abnormal grain growth and change in electrical characteristics in the conventional ZnO varistors caused by volatilization of Bi2O3, the ZnO powder with all additive oxides except Bi2O3 was pressed into disc form and sintered. The disc was then painted with metal oxide paste containing Bi2O3 and again fired. The ZnO varistor fabricated by this process, i.e. a two-stage heat-treatment process, showed typical non-linearI-V characteristics with higher breakdown voltage exceeding 800 V mm−1. It was also observed that the non-linearI-V coefficient change rate, Δα, in the ZnO varistor due to reheat-treatment is almost linearly proportional to the sintered density.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    L. M. Levinson andJ. R. Philipp,J. Appt. Phys. 46 (1975) 1332.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    J. Wong,ibid. 46 (1975) 1653.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    K. Eda,ibid. 49 (1978) 2964.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    A. Kusy andT. G. M. Kleinpenning,ibid. 54 (1983) 2900.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    E. D. Kim, C. H. Kim andM. H. Oh,ibid. 58 (1985) 3231.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    M. Inada,Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 19 (1980) 409.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T. Takemura, M. Kobayashi, Y. Takada andK. Sato,J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 70 (1987) 237.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    H. Kanai andM. Imai,J. Mater. Sci. 23 (1988) 4379.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    J. Wong andW. G. Morris,Ceram. Bull. 53 (1974) 816.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Randall M. German, “Liquid Phase Sintering” (Plenum Press, New York, 1985) Ch. 6.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    M. Inada,Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 18 (1979) 1439.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J. W. Medernich andR. L. Snyder,J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 61 (1978) 494.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    T. Takemura, M. Kobayashi, Y. Takada andK. Sato,ibid. 69 (1986) 430.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M. Inada,Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 17 (1978) 1.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    M. Matsuoka,ibid. 10 (1971) 736.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lee, N.Y., Kim, M.S., Chung, I.J. et al. Electrical characteristics and reheat-treatment effects in a ZnO varistor fabricated by two-stage heat-treatment. J Mater Sci 26, 1126–1130 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00576798

Download citation

Keywords

  • Oxide
  • Metal Oxide
  • MnO2
  • Change Rate
  • Co2O3