Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 102, Issue 4, pp 513–518 | Cite as

A universal method for quantifying and comparing the residual variability of element concentrations in biological tissues using 25 elements in the mussel Mytilus edulis as a model

  • P. B. Lobel
  • S. P. Belkhode
  • S. E. Jackson
  • H. P. Longerich
Article

Abstract

The concentrations of elements in biological tissue may be influenced by a large number of environmental and physiological factors. Even when all known sources of variability have been either eliminated or taken into account, a very high degree of unexplained residual variability may persist between individual organisms within the same population. In the present study, a simple statistical method is described which permits the calculation of the residual variabilities of element concentrations, even from complex multivariate data, and allows statistical comparison between elements to be made (either within a single tissue, between different tissues or between different species). The method is quite general and could also be used for studying residual variability in any other natural phenomena (e.g. enzyme concentrations, water temperature). The case of 25 element concentrations in the whole soft tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis collected from Bellevue, Newfoundland, Canada in June 1988 was used as a model. It was clearly shown that some elements (e.g. the alkali earth elements and B, Mg and Cu) had extremely low residual variability while other elements (e.g. Ce, Zn, Ba, La, U, Pb, Ag, Y, Sr and Ca) showed unusually high degrees of residual variability. Al also showed very high variability but this appeared to be due to the presence of undigested sediment in the gut rather than to residual variability. Important sources of non-residual variability included sex, size and growth rate. The method described in this paper could be used as an initial screening test for pinpointing intrapopulation genetic differences in element metabolism between individual organisms.

Keywords

Element Concentration Earth Element Screening Test Biological Tissue Enzyme Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bayne, B. L., Brown, D. A., Burns, K., Dixon, D. R., Ivanovici, A., Livingstone, D. R., Lowe, D. M., Moore, M. N. Stebbing A. R. D., Widdows, J. (1985) The effects of stress and pollution on marine animals. Praeger, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Boyden, C. R. (1977). Effect of size upon metal content of shellfish. J. mar. biol. Ass U.K. 57: 675–714Google Scholar
  3. Boyden, C. R., Phillips, D. J. H. (1981). Seasonal variation and inherent variability of trace elements in oysters and their implications for indicator studies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5: 29–40Google Scholar
  4. Duval, J. S., Schwarzer, T., Adams J. A. S. (1971). Lognormal distribution of trace elements in the environment. In: Hemphill, D. (ed.) Trace substances in environmental health. Vol. 4, University of Missouri, Columbia, p. 120–131Google Scholar
  5. Esmen, N. A., Hammad, Y. H. (1977). Lognormality of environmental sampling data. J. Environ. Sci. Health A12: 29–41Google Scholar
  6. Ferguson, G. A. (1976). Statistical analysis in psychology and education. 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. George, S. G. (1983). Heavy metal detoxification in Mytilus kidney — an in vitro study of Cd- and Zn-binding to isolated tertiary lysosomes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 76 C: 59–65Google Scholar
  8. George, S. G., Coombs, T. L., Pirie, B. J. S. (1982). Characterization of metal-containing granules from the kidney of the common mussel, Mytilus edulis Biochim. biophys. Acta 716: 61–71Google Scholar
  9. George, S. G., Pirie, B. J. S. (1980). Metabolism of zinc in the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.): a combined ultrastructural and biochemical study. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 60: 575–590Google Scholar
  10. Giesy, Jr., J. P., Wiener, J. G. (1977). Frequency distributions of trace metal concentrations in five freshwater fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 106: 393–403Google Scholar
  11. Glasnapp, D. R., Poggio, J. P. (1985). Essentials of Statistical Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  12. International Mussel Watch (1980). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  13. Lewontin, R. C. (1966). On the measurement of relative variability. Syst. Zool. 15: 141–142Google Scholar
  14. Lobel, P. B. (1986). Role of the kidney in determining the whole soft tissue zinc concentration, of individual mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mar. Biol 92: 355–359Google Scholar
  15. Lobel, P. B. (1987a). Intersite, intrasite and inherent variability of the whole soft tissue zinc concentrations of individual mussels Mytilus edulis: importance of the kidney. Mar. envir Res. 21: 59–71Google Scholar
  16. Lobel, P. B. (1987b). Inherent variability in the ratio of zinc to other elements in the kidney of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 87C: 47–50Google Scholar
  17. Lobel, P. B. (1987c). Short-term and long-term uptake of zinc by the mussel, Mytilus edulis: a study in individual variability. Archs envir. Contam. Toxic. 16: 723–732Google Scholar
  18. Lobel, P. B., Marshall, H. D. (1988). A unique low molecular weight zinc-binding ligand in the kidney cytosol of the mussel Mytilus edulis, and its relationship to the inherent variability of zinc accumulation in this organism. Mar. Biol 99: 101–105Google Scholar
  19. Lobel, P. B., Mogie, P., Wright, D. A., Wu, B. L. (1982). Metal accumulation in four molluscs. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 13: 170–174Google Scholar
  20. Lobel, P. B., Wright, D. A. (1982a). Relationship between body zinc concentration and allometric growth measuremtns, in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar. Biol. 66: 145–150Google Scholar
  21. Lobel, P. B., Wright, D. A. (1982b). Total body zinc concentration and allometric growth ratios in Mytilus edulis collected from different shore levels. Mar. Biol. 66: 231–236Google Scholar
  22. Phillips, D. J. H. (1980). Quantitative aquatic biological indicators. Applied Sciences Publishers, EssexGoogle Scholar
  23. Roesijadi, G., Young, J. S., Drum, A. S., Gurtisen, J. M. (1984). Behavior of trace elements in Mytilus edulis during a reciprocal transplant field experiment. Mar. Biol. Prog. Ser. 18: 155–170Google Scholar
  24. Seed, R. (1968). Factors influencing shell shape in the mussel Mytilus edulis. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 48: 561–584Google Scholar
  25. Snedecor, G. W., Cochran, W. G., (1980). Statistical Methods. 7th edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  26. Talbot, V., Simpson, C. (1983). The validity of using arithmetic means to summarize environmental pollution data. Chem. Aust 50: 156–158Google Scholar
  27. Wright, D. A., Mihursky, J. A., Phelps, H. L. (1985). Trace metals in Chesapeake Bay oysters: intra-sample variability and its implications for biomonitoring. Mar. envir Res. 16: 181–197Google Scholar
  28. Zar, J. H. (1984). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, p. 125–126Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. B. Lobel
    • 1
  • S. P. Belkhode
    • 1
  • S. E. Jackson
    • 2
  • H. P. Longerich
    • 2
  1. 1.Ocean Sciences CentreMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt John'sCanada
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt John'sCanada

Personalised recommendations