Marine Biology

, Volume 95, Issue 2, pp 157–166 | Cite as

Age and growth of co-occurring larvae of two flounder species, Rhombosolea tapirina and Ammotretis rostratus

  • G. P. Jenkins


Daily growth increments on otoliths were used to age larvae of the pleuronectid fluonders Rhombosolea tapirina Günther and Ammotretis rostratus Günther, collected from Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia, in winter 1984. Daily formation of growth increments was confirmed for R. tapirina by examining the growth of the marginal increment on otoliths of larvae collected over two 24h periods in winter 1985. The first distinctive growth increment was laid down approximately 5 d after hatching, at the onset of external feeding. Growth of flounder larvae was exponential from an early feeding stage to notochord flexion at approximately 30 d after hatching. The specific growth rate was very similar for the two species, at slightly over 4% of standard length per day. Predicted absolute growth rate of R. tapirina larvae increased from approximately 0.10 mm d-1 in early feeding larvae to approximately 0.23 mm d-1 in flexion-stage larvae, compared with 0.12 to 0.28 mm d-1 for A. rostratus larvae of equivalent ages. Exponential models did not adequately describe growth of first-feeding larvae, which was slower than predicted. Growth in the field was faster than that recorded for the same species in the laboratory at higher water temperatures and prey abundances. Otolith growth accelerated markedly in relation to growth in length at the beginning of metamorphosis, causing a significant alteration in the morphology of growth increments, and eventually leading to the cessation of production of visible increments.


Specific Growth Rate Growth Increment High Water Temperature Feeding Larva Daily Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bailey, K. M. and C. L. Stehr: Laboratory studies on the early life history of the walleye pollack, Theragra chalcograma (Pallas). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 99, 233–246 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, R. F. J., K. W. Able and W. C. Leggett: Evidence for the presence of a metamorphic check in capelin (Mallotus villosus) otoliths and implications for age determination. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 34, 2008–2014 (1977)Google Scholar
  3. Bolz, G. R. and R. G. Lough: Growth of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, and haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, on Georges bank, spring 1981. Fish. Bull. U.S. 81, 827–836 (1983)Google Scholar
  4. Brothers, E. B., C. P. Mathews and R. Lasker: Daily growth increments in otoliths from larval and adult fishes. Fish. Bull. U.S. 74, 1–8 (1976)Google Scholar
  5. Brothers, E. B. and W. N. McFarland: Correlations between otolith microstructure, growth, and life history transitions in newly recruited French grunts [Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest), Haemulidae]. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 178, 369–374 (1981)Google Scholar
  6. Campana, S. E.: Interactive effects of age and environmental modifiers on the production of daily growth increments in otoliths of plainfin midshipman, Porichthys notatus. Fish. Bull. U.S. 82, 165–177 (1984)Google Scholar
  7. Campana, S. E. and J. D. Neilson: Daily growth increments in otoliths of starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and the influence of some environmental variables on their production. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sciences 39, 937–942 (1982)Google Scholar
  8. Crawford, C. M.: Preliminary results of experiments on the rearing of Tasmanian flounders, Rhombosolea tapirina and Ammotretis rostratus. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 42, 75–81 (1984)Google Scholar
  9. Crawford, C. M.: Development of eggs and larvae of the flounders, Rhombosolea tapirina and Ammotretis rostratus (Pisces: Pleuronectidae). J. Fish Biol. 29, 325–334 (1986)Google Scholar
  10. Geffen, A. J.: Otolith ring deposition in relation to growth rate in herring (Clupea harengus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae. Mar. Biol. 71, 317–326 (1982)Google Scholar
  11. Govoni, J. J., A. J. Chester, D. E. Hoss and P. B. Ortner: An observation of episodic feeding and growth of larval Leiostomus xanthurus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Plankton Res. 7, 137–146 (1985)Google Scholar
  12. Hay, D. E.: Effects of capture and fixation on gut contents and body size of Pacific herring larvae. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 178, 395–400 (1981)Google Scholar
  13. Hewitt, R. P., G. H. Theilacker and H. C. H. Lo: Causes of mortality in young jack mackerel. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26, 1–10 (1985)Google Scholar
  14. Hjort, J.: Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe viewed in the light of biological research. Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 20, 1–228 (1914)Google Scholar
  15. Houde, E. D.: Critical food concentrations for larvae of three species of subtropical marine fishes. Bull. mar. Sci. 28, 395–411 (1978)Google Scholar
  16. Hunter, J. R. (Ed.): Report of a colloquium on larval fish mortality studies and their relation to fishery research, January, 1975. NOAA natn. mar. Fish. Serv. tech. Rep. U.S. Dep. Commerce NMFS-SSRS-395, 1–5 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. Hunter, J. R.: Feeding ecology and predation of marine fish larvae. In: Marine fish larvae. Morphology, ecology and relation to fisheries, pp 34–77. Ed. by R. Lasker. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Program 1981Google Scholar
  18. Jenkins, G. P.: Composition, seasonality and distribution of ichthyoplankton in Port Phillip Bay. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 37, 507–520 (1986a)Google Scholar
  19. Jenkins, G. P.: Feeding and growth in co-occurring larvae of two flounder species in relation to the microdistribution of their prey, 91 pp. Ph.D. thesis, University of Melbourne, Victoria 1986bGoogle Scholar
  20. Jenkins, G. P.: Comparative diets, prey selection and predatory impact of co-occurring larvae of two flounder species. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. (In press)Google Scholar
  21. Jones, C.: Determining age of larval fish with the otolith increment technique. Fish. Bull. U.S. 84, 91–103 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Laroche, J. L., S. L. Richardson and A. A. Rosenberg: Age and growth of a pleuronectid, Parophrys vetulus, during the pelagic larval period in Oregon coastal waters. Fish. Bull. U.S. 80, 93–104 (1982)Google Scholar
  23. Lough, R. G., M. Pennington, G. R. Bolz and A. A. Rosenberg: Age and growth of larval Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Band region based on otolith growth increments. Fish. Bull. U.S. 80, 187–199 (1982)Google Scholar
  24. McGurk, M. D.: Ring deposition in the otoliths of larval pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi. Fish Bull. U.S. 82, 113–120 (1984)Google Scholar
  25. McGurk, M. D.: Effects of net capture on the postpreservation morphometry, dry weight, and condition factor of Pacific herring larvae. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114, 348–355 (1985)Google Scholar
  26. Methot, R. D., Jr.: Spatial covariation of daily growth rates of larval northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and northern lampfish, Stenobrachius leucopsarus. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 178, 424–431 (1981)Google Scholar
  27. Methot, R. D., Jr.: Seasonal variation in survival of larval northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, estimated from the age distribution of juveniles. Fish. Bull. U.S. 81, 741–750 (1983)Google Scholar
  28. Methot, R. D., Jr. and D. Kramer: Growth of northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, larvae in the sea. Fish. Bull. U.S. 77, 413–423 (1979)Google Scholar
  29. Miller, S. J. and T. Stork: Temporal spawning distribution of largemouth bass and young-of-year growth, determined from daily otolith rings. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 113, 571–578 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mugiva, Y., N. Watabe, J. Yamada, J. M. Dean, D. G. Dunkelberger and M. Shimizu: Diurnal rhythm in otolith formation in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 68A, 659–662 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neilson, J. D. and G. H. Geen: Otoliths of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): daily growth increments and factors influencing their production. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sciences 39, 1340–1347 (1982)Google Scholar
  32. Neilson, J. D. and G. H. Geen: Effects of feeding regimes and diel temperature cycles on otolith increment formation in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Fish. Bull. U.S. 83, 91–101 (1985)Google Scholar
  33. Nishimura, A. and J. Yamada: Age and growth of larval and juvenile walleye pollack, Theregra chalcogramma (Pallas), as determined by otolith daily growth increments. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 82, 191–205 (1984)Google Scholar
  34. Øiestad, V.: Applications of enclosures to studies on the early life history of fishes. In: Marine mesocosms, pp 49–62. Ed. by G. D. Grice and M. R. Reeve. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1982Google Scholar
  35. Panella, G.: Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns. Science, N.Y. 173, 1124–1127 (1971)Google Scholar
  36. Panella, G.: Otolith growth patterns: an aid in age determination in temperate and tropical fishes. In: Aging of fish, pp 28–39. Ed. by T. B. Bagenal, Surrey: Unwin Brothers 1974Google Scholar
  37. Pennington, M. R.: Fitting a growth curve to field data. In: Statistical distributions in ecological work, pp 419–428. Ed. by J. K. Ord, G. P. Patil and C. Tallie. Fairland, Maryland: Internatinal Co-operative Publishing House 1979Google Scholar
  38. Re, P.: Evidence of daily and hourly growth in pilchard larvae based on otoligh growth increments, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792). Cybium 8, 33–38 (1984)Google Scholar
  39. Rice, J. A., L. B. Crowder and F. B. Binkowski: Evaluating otolith analysis for bloater Coregonus hoyi: do otoliths ring true? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114, 532–539 (1985)Google Scholar
  40. Shepherd, J. G. and D. H. Cushing: A mechanism for density dependent survival of larval fish as the basis of a stockrecruitment relationship. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 39, 160–167 (1980)Google Scholar
  41. Smith, P. e.: Year-class strength and survival of O-group clupeoids. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sciences 42 (Suppl. 1), 69–82 (1985)Google Scholar
  42. Tanaka, K., Y. Mugiya and J. Yamada: Effects of photoperiod and feeding on daily growth patterns in otoliths of juvenile Tilapia nilotica. Fish. Bull. U.S. 79, 459–466 (1981)Google Scholar
  43. Taubert, B. D. and D. W. Coble: Daily rings in otoliths of three species of Lepomis and Tilapia mossambica. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 34, 332–340 (1977)Google Scholar
  44. Theilacker, G. H.: Changes in body measurements of larval northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and other fishes due to handling and preservation. Fish. Bull. U.S. 78, 685–692 (1980)Google Scholar
  45. Townsend, D. W. and J. J. Graham: Growth and age structure of larval Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus harengus, in the Sheepscot River estuary, Maine, as determined by daily growth increments in otoliths. Fish. Bull. U.S. 79, 123–130 (1981)Google Scholar
  46. Tsuji, S. and T. Aoyama: Daily growth increments in otoliths of Japanese anchovy larvae Engraulis japonica. Bull. Jap. Soc. scient. Fish. 50, 1105–1108 (1984)Google Scholar
  47. Victor, B. C.: Daily otolith increments and recruitment in two coral-reef wrasses, Thalassoma bifasciatum and Halichoeres bivittatus. Mar. Biol. 71, 203–208 (1982)Google Scholar
  48. Victor, B. C.: Recruitment and population dynamics of a coral reef fish. Science, N.Y. 219, 419–420 (1983)Google Scholar
  49. Victor, B. C.: Delayed metamorphosis with reduced larval growth in a coral reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum). Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sciences 43, 1208–1213 (1986)Google Scholar
  50. Warlen, S. M. and A. J. Chester: Age, growth, and distribution of larval spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, off North Carolina. Fish. Bull. U.S. 83, 587–599 (1985)Google Scholar
  51. Westernhagen, H. and H. Rosenthal: Laboratory and in situ studies on larval development and swimming performance of Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 32, 539–549 (1979)Google Scholar
  52. Zweifel, J. R. and R. Lasker: Prehatch and posthatch growth of fishes-a general model. Fish. Bull. U.S. 74, 609–621 (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Jenkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations