Marine Biology

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 321–330 | Cite as

Variability in abundance, vertical distribution and ontogenetic migrations of Thysanoessa longicaudata (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

  • R. Williams
  • J. A. Lindley


The vertical distribution, seasonal and ontogenetic migrations and seasonal variability in abundance of Thysanoessa longicaudata (Krøyer) were investigated using the Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder for a 4 yr period (March, 1971 to May, 1975) at Ocean Weather Station “I” (59°00′N; 19°00′W) in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of 8 species of euphausiids identified at this position, the vast majority were T. longicaudata (for example, 99.5% of the total euphausiids in 1972 belonged to this species). From March to October the majority of calyptopes, furciliae and adults of T. longicaudata were found in the upper 100 m. The major spawning occurred in spring at a water temperature of 9° to 10°C and calyptopes and furciliae appeared in late April, reaching their maximum abundance in May. There was no evidence of large-scale diurnal migrations, although an extensive ontogenetic migration of young developmental stages was observed. The eggs were found from 100 m down to 800 m, the maximum depth of sampling, and the vertical distribution of the three naupliar stages showed a “developmental ascent” as they matured. During the main reproductive period in May, over 70% of all nauplii were below 500 m while more than 94% of Calyptopis Stage I were above 500 m with their maximum abundance in the euphotic zone (0 to 50 m). Calyptopis Stage I is the first feeding stage and it is this stage which shows the largest ontogenetic migration. Brief descriptions of the egg and nauplii are given.


Vertical Distribution Maximum Depth Seasonal Variability Reproductive Period Euphotic Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Berkes, F.: Ecology of euphausiids in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 33, 1894–1905 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. Bigelow, H. B.: Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. Bur. Fish., Wash. 40(2), 1–509 (1926)Google Scholar
  3. Colebrook, J. M.: Continuous plankton records: seasonal variation in the distribution of plankton in the north Atlantic and North Sea. J. Plankton Res. (In press)Google Scholar
  4. Colebrook, J. M. and A. H. Taylor: Year to year changes in seasurface temperature, North Atlantic and North Sea, 1948 to 1974. Deep-Sea Res. 26, 825–850 (1979)Google Scholar
  5. Edinburgh Oceanographic Laboratory: Continuous plankton records: a plankton atlas of the north Atlantic and the North Sea. Bull. mar. Ecol. 7, 1–174 (1973)Google Scholar
  6. Einarsson, H.: Euphausiacea. I. Northern Atlantic species. Dana Rep. 27, 1–185 (1945)Google Scholar
  7. Glover, R. S.: Continuous plankton records: the Euphausiacea of the north-eastern Atlantic and the North Sea 1946–1948. Hull Bull. mar. Ecol. 3, 185–214 (1952)Google Scholar
  8. Glover, R. S.: The continuous plankton recorder survey of the North Atlantic. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 19, 189–210 (1967)Google Scholar
  9. Hansen, H. J.: Crustacea Malacostraca I. Dan. Ingolf-Exped. 3(2), 1–120 (1908)Google Scholar
  10. Hempel, I.: Vertical distribution of eggs and nauplii of krill (Euphausia superba) south of Elephant Island. Meeresforsch. Rep. mar. Res. 27 (Sdbd), 119–123 (1979) (Ber. dt. wiss. Kommn Meeresforsch.)Google Scholar
  11. Jones, D. H.: Food, Parasites and reproductive cycle of pelagic redfish (Sebastes mentella Travin) from Ocean Weather Station Alfa in the North Atlantic. Bull. mar. Ecol. 6, 347–370 (1970)Google Scholar
  12. Jones, L. T.: Continuous plankton records: studies on the zooplankton east of Newfoundland and Labrador with special reference to the euphausiid Thysanoessa longicaudata (Krøyer). Bull. mar. Ecol. 6, 275–300 (1969)Google Scholar
  13. Leavitt, B. B.: A quantitative study of the larger zooplankton in deep water. Biol. Bull. mar. Biol. Lab., Woods Hole 68, 115–130 (1935)Google Scholar
  14. Leavitt, B. B.: The quantitative vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Atlantic Ocean Basin. Biol. Bull. mar. Biol. Lab., Woods Hole 74, 376–394 (1938)Google Scholar
  15. Lindley, J. A.: Continuous plankton records: the distribution of the Euphausiacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca) in the north Atlantic and the North Sea, 1966–67. J. Biogeogr 4, 121–133 (1977)Google Scholar
  16. Lindley, J. A.: Population dynamics and production of euphausiids. I. Thysanoessa longicaudata in the North Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Biol. 46, 121–130 (1978)Google Scholar
  17. Longhurst, A. R., A. D. Reith, R. E. Bowes and D. L. R. Siebert: A new system for the collection of multiple serial samples. Deep-Sea Res. 13, 213–222 (1966)Google Scholar
  18. Longhurst, A. R. and R. Williams: Improved filtration systems for multiple-serial plankton samplers and their deployment. Deep-Sea Res. 23, 1067–1073 (1976)Google Scholar
  19. Makarov, R. R.: Larval distribution and reproductive ecology of Thysanoessa macrura (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the Scotia Sea. Mar. Biol. 52, 377–386 (1979)Google Scholar
  20. Marr, J. W. S.: The natural history and geography of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) ‘Discovery’ Rep. 32, 33–464 (1962)Google Scholar
  21. Mauchline, J.: The biology of mysids and euphausiids. Adv. mar. Biol. 18, 1–681 (1980)Google Scholar
  22. Mauchline, J. and L. R. Fisher: The biology of euphausiids. Adv. mar. Biol. 7, 1–454 (1969)Google Scholar
  23. Østvedt, O. S.: Zooplankton investigations from weather ship M in the Norwegian Sea, 1948–49. Hvalråd. Skr. 40, 1–93 (1955)Google Scholar
  24. Paulsen, O.: Plankton investigations in the waters round Iceland and in the North Atlantic in 1904. Meddr Kommn Havunders. (Ser. Plankton) 1(8), 1–57 (1909)Google Scholar
  25. Runnström, S.: Über die Thermopathie der Fortpflanzung und Entwicklung mariner Tiere in Beziehung zu ihrer geographischen Verbreitung. Univ. Bergen Årb. (Naturv. rekke) 1927(2), 1–67 (1928)Google Scholar
  26. Tattershall, W. M.: Schizopodous Crustacea from the North-East Atlantic slope, Scient. Invest. Fish. Brch Ire. 1910 (Suppl. II), 1–77 (1911)Google Scholar
  27. Williams, R. and D. Robins: Seasonal variability in abundance and vertical distribution of Parathemisto gaudichaudi (Amphipoda: Hyperiidea) in the north east Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 4, 289–298 (1981)Google Scholar
  28. Williams, R. and G. A. Robinson: Biological sampling at OWS “India” (59°00′N; 19°00′W) in 1971. Annls biol., Copenh. 28, 57–59 (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Williams
    • 1
  • J. A. Lindley
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Marine Environmental ResearchNatural Environment Research CouncilPlymouthEngland

Personalised recommendations