Marine Biology

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 101–107 | Cite as

Branchial Na+−K+-ATPase activity during osmotic adjustments in two freshwater euryhaline teleosts, tilapia (Sarotherodon mossambicus) and orange chromid (Etroplus maculatus)

  • A. D. Dange


Effects of osmotic stress on the branchial Na+−K+-ATPase activity in two freshwater euryhaline teleosts (the tilapia Sarotherodon mossambicus Peters and the orange chromid Etroplus maculatus Bleeker) were studied. Direct transfer from fresh water to salt water with a salinity of 35‰ S caused extensive mortality in tilapia. Of the remaining four saltwater concentrations (4.375, 8.75, 17.5, and 26.25‰ S), the higher two increased the enzyme activity significantly in the first week without affecting it further during the remaining seven weeks of acclimation. The lower two concentrations failed to elicit any significant change. In the case of orange chromid, all three salt-water concentrations (4.375, 8.75, and 17.5‰ S) which the fish survived produced a more significant and extensive change in the enzyme activity, which continued to rise during the entire acclimation period. Employing a procedure of gradual transfer, tilapia and orange chromid were successfully adapted to saltwater concentrations of up to 61.25 and 35‰ S, respectively. In this experiment, almost each successive increase in salinity elevated the enzyme activity further, but the total change in both species was considerably less extensive than might be expected from the direct transfer study. When the freshwater fish were transferred to identical concentrations of pure NaCl or whole ocean salt, the former produced a relatively greater change in the enzyme activity in tilapia. No such difference was seen in orange chromid. During reacclimation of the saltwater-adapted fish to fresh water, the enzyme activity began to decrease immediately in both species, but remained above the freshwater control levels at the end of eight weeks.


Fresh Water ATPase Activity Osmotic Stress Osmotic Adjustment Acclimation Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Assem, H. and W. Hanke: Concentrations of carbohydrates during osmotic adjustment of the euryhaline teleost, Tilapia mossambica. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64A, 5–16 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dange, A. D. and V. B. Masurekar: Naphthalene-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism in Sarotherodon mossambicus Peters (Pisces: Cichlidae). Hydrobiologia 94, 163–172 (1982)Google Scholar
  3. Epstein, F. H., M. Cynamon and W. McKay: Endocrine control of Na−K-ATPase and seawater adaptation in Anguilla rostraia. Gen. comp. Endochrinol. 16, 323–328 (1971)Google Scholar
  4. Epstein, F. H., A. I. Katz and G. F. Pickford: Sodium and potassium activated adenosine triphosphatase of gills: role in adaptation of teleosts to salt water. Science, N.Y. 156, 1245–1247 (1967)Google Scholar
  5. Fiske, C. H. and Y. SubbaRow: The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem. 66, 375–400 (1925)Google Scholar
  6. Forrest, J. N., Jr., A. D. Cohen, D. A. Schon and F. H. Epstein: Na transport and Na−K-ATPase in gills during adaptation to seawater: effects of cortisol. Am. J. Physiol. 224, 709–713 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ho, S. M. and D. K. O. Chan: Branchial ATPases and ionic transport in the eel, Anguilla anguilla — I. Na+−K+-ATPase. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 66B, 255–260 (1980)Google Scholar
  8. Karnaky, K. J., Jr., S. A. Ernst and C. W. Philpott: Teleost chloride cell. I. Response of pupfish Cyprinodon variegaius gill Na, K-ATPase and chloride cell fine structure to various high salinity environments. J. Cell Biol. 70, 144–156 (1976)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall: Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265–275 (1951)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. McCartney, T. H.: Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity in the gills and kidneys of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 53A, 351–353 (1976)Google Scholar
  11. Maetz, J.: Fish gills: mechanisms of salt transfer in fresh water and sea water. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 262, 209–251 (1971)Google Scholar
  12. Mainoya, J. R.: Water and NaCl absorption by the intestine of the tilapia Sarotherodon mossambicus adapted to fresh water or seawater and the possible role of prolactin and cortisol. J. Comp. Physiol. 146, 1–7 (1982)Google Scholar
  13. Pampapathi Rao, K.: Salinity tolerance of Etroplus maculatus (Block). Curr. Sci. 27, 99 (1958)Google Scholar
  14. Pfeiler, E. and L. B. Kirschner: Studies on gill ATPase of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Biochem. biophys. Acta 282, 301–310 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pickford, G. E., R. W. Griffith, J. Torreti, E. Hendler and F. H. Epstein: Branchial reduction and renal stimulation of sodiumplus potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase by prolactin in hypophysectomized killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in fresh water. Nature, Lond. 228, 378–379 (1970a)Google Scholar
  16. Pickford, G. E., P. K. T. Pang, E. Weinstein, J. Torretti, E. Hendler and F. H. Epstein: The response of the hypophysectomized cyprinodont, Fundulus heteroclitus, to replacement therapy with cortisol: effects on blood serum and sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase in the gills, kidney and intestinal mucosa. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 14, 524–534 (1970b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Potts, W. T. W., M. A. Foster, P. P. Rudy and G. H. Parry: Sodium and water balance in the cichlid teleost Tilapia mossambica. J. exp. Biol. 47, 461–470 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Silva, P., R. Solomon, K. Spokes and F. H. Epstein: Ouabain inhibition of gill Na−K-ATPase: relationship to active chloride transport. J. exp. Zool. 199, 419–426 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wendelaar Bonga, S. E. and J. C. A. Van der Meij: Effect of ambient osmolarity and calcium on prolactin cell activity and osmotic water permeability of the gills in the teleost Sarotherodon mossambicus. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 43, 432–442 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Woo, N. Y. S. and W. C. M. Tong: Salinity adaptation in the snakehead, Ophiocephalus maculatus Lacepede: changes in oxygen consumption, branchial Na+−K+-ATPase and body composition. J. Fish Biol. 20, 11–19 (1982)Google Scholar
  21. Zaugg, W. S.: Comments on the relationship between gill ATPase activities, migration, and salt water adaptation of coho salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 4, 811–813 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. Dange
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyWilson CollegeBombayIndia

Personalised recommendations