Marine Biology

, Volume 64, Issue 3, pp 267–272 | Cite as

On the post-glacial history of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the gulf of maine and the gulf of St. Lawrence

  • B. J. McAlice


Acartia tonsa Dana is thought to have invaded summer-warm estuarine headwaters north of Cape Cod, USA in modern times. However, these northern populations are relict ones, derived from a distribution which was once continuous from Cape Cod to the Northumberland Strait. The conclusion is based on: (1) the presence of other relict warm-water faunal elements; (2) the reproductive ecology of A. tonsa; (3) present and post-glacial oceanographic conditions. A. tonsa is not a relict holoplankter. Because of its dormant winter eggs, the species is analogous to a meroplanktonic species having high fecundity and a long pelagic larval stage. The disjunction of A. tonsa in its present refuges may make it useful for studies on rates of speciation in marine calanoid copepods.


Larval Stage Modern Time High Fecundity Calanoid Copepod Northern Population 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bartlett, G. A. and L. Molinsky. Foraminifera and Holocene history of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. J. earth Sci. 9, 1204–1215 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertrand, D. E. Seasonal succession of the plankton of Penobscot Bay, Maine. M.S. Thesis, Graduate school of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island. 124 pp. (1977)Google Scholar
  3. Bigelow, H. B. Physical oceanography of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. Bur. Fish., Wash. 40, 511–1027 (1927)Google Scholar
  4. Bigelow, H. B. and M. Sears. Studies of the waters of the continental shelf, Cape Cod to Chesapeake Bay. IV. A volumetric study of the zooplankton. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool. 54, 183–378 (1939)Google Scholar
  5. Bousfield, E. L. Ecological control of the occurrence of barnacles in the Miramichi estuary. Bull. natn. Mus. Can. 137, 1–69 (1955)Google Scholar
  6. Bousfield, E. L. and D. R. Laubitz. Station lists and new distributional records of littoral marine invertebrates of the Canadian Atlantic and New England regions. Publ. biol. Oceanogr. Natn. Mus. natur. Sci. (Can.) 5, 1–51 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. Bousfield, E. L. and M. L. H. Thomas. Postglacial changes in distribution of littoral marine invertebrates in the Canadian Atlantic region. Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci. 27, Supp. 3, 47–60 (1975)Google Scholar
  8. Bradford, J. M. Partial revision of the Acartia subgenus Acartiura. N.Z.J. mar. freshw. Res. 10, 159–202 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bumpus, D. F. and L. M. Lauzier. Surface circulation on the continental shelf off eastern North America between Newfoundland and Florida. Am. geograph. Soc., Ser. Atlas mar. Environ., Folio 7 (1965)Google Scholar
  10. Clarke, A. H., Jr., D. J. Stanley, J. C. Medcof, and R. E. Drinnan. Ancient oyster and bay scallop shells from Sable Island. Nature, Lond. 215, 1146–1148 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colton, J. B., Jr. and R. R. Stoddard. Average monthly seawater temperatures Nova Scotia to Long Island, 1940–1959. Am. geograph. Soc., Ser. Atlas mar. Environ., Folio 21 (1972)Google Scholar
  12. Conover, R. J. Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952–1954. VI. Biology of Acartia clausi and A. tonsa. Bull. Bingham oceanogr. Coll. 15, 156–233 (1956)Google Scholar
  13. Cronin, L. E., J. D. Daiber, and E. M. Hulburt. Quantitative seasonal aspects of zooplankton in the Delaware River estuary. Ches. Sci. 3, 63–93 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deevey, E. S. and R. S. Flint. Postglacial hypsithermal interval. Science, N.Y. 125, 182–184 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deevey, G. B. A survey of the zooplankton of Block Island Sound, 1943–1946. Bull. Bingham oceanogr. Coll. 13, 65–119 (1952)Google Scholar
  16. Deevey, G. B. The zooplankton of the surface waters of the Delaware Bay region. Bull. Bingham. oceanogr. Coll. 17, 5–53 (1960)Google Scholar
  17. Faber, d. J. Free-swimming copepod nauplii of Narragansett Bay with a key to their identification. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 23, 189–205 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fish, C. J. Seasonal distribution of the plankton of the Woods Hole region. Bull. Bur. Fish., Wash. 41, 91–179 (1925)Google Scholar
  19. Franz, D. R. and A. S. Merrill. Molluscan distribution patterns on the continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwest Atlantic). Malacologia 19, 209–225 (1980a)Google Scholar
  20. Franz, D. R. and A. S. Merrill. The origins and determinants of distribution of molluscan faunal groups on the shallow continental shelf of the Northwest Atlantic. Malacologia 19, 227–248 (1980b)Google Scholar
  21. Ganong, W. F. Southern invertebrates on the shores of Acadia. Trans. R. Soc. Can. 4, 167–185 (1890)Google Scholar
  22. Grant, D. R. Recent coastal submergence of the Maritime Provinces, Canada. Can. J. earth Sci. 7, 676–689 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grant, D. R. Quaternary sea-level change in Atlantic Canada as an indication of crustal delevelling. In: Earth rheology, isostasy and eustasy, pp 201–214. Ed. by N. A. Morner. New York: John Wiley and Sons 1980Google Scholar
  24. Grice, G. D. and A. D. Hart. The abundance, seasonal occurrence and distribution of the epizooplankton between New York and Bermuda. Ecol. Monogr. 32, 287–309 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hachey, H. B. and H. J. McLellan. Trends and cycles in surface temperatures of the Canadian Atlantic. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can 7, 355–362 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hargrave, B. T. and G. H. Geen. Effects of copepod grazing on two natural phytoplankton populations. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 27, 1395–1403 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hartwell, A. D. and N. B. Savage. Coastal boundary layer influences distribution of bivalve larvae. Coastal Oceanogr. Climat. News 2, 19 (1980)Google Scholar
  28. Heinle, D. R. Production of a calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa, in the Patuxent River estuary. Ches. Sci. 7, 59–74 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hicks, S. D. The physical oceanography of Narragansett Bay. Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 316–327 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jeffries, H. P. Succession of two Acartia species in estuaries. Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 354–364 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jermolaev, E. G. Zooplankton of the inner Bay of Fundy. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 15, 1219–1228 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, J. K. Effects of temperature and salinity on production and hatching of dormant eggs of Acartia californiensis (Copepoda) in an Oregon estuary. Fish. Bull. natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm. (U.S.) 77, 567–584 (1980)Google Scholar
  33. Knatz, G. Succession of copepod species in a middle Atlantic estuary. Estuaries 1, 68–70 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kranck, K. Geomorphological development and post-Pleistocene sea level changes, Northumberland Strait, Maritime Provinces. Can. J. earth Sci. 9, 835–844 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee, W. Y. and B. J. McAlice. Seasonal succession and breeding cycles of three species of Acartia (Copepoda: Calanoida) in a Maine estuary. Estuaries 2, 228–235 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Martin, J. H. Phytoplankton-zooplankton relationships in Narragansett Bay. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10, 185–191 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Medcof, J. C., A. H. Clarke, Jr., and J. S. Erskine. Ancient Canadian east-coast oyster and quahaug shells. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 22, 631–634 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Owre, H. B. and M. Foyo. Copepods of the Florida Current 137 pp. Miami: Inst. Mar. Sci. Univ. Miami 1967Google Scholar
  39. Platt, T. and B. Irwin. Primary productivity measurements in St. Margaret's Bay, 1967. Tech. Rep. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 77, 1–123 (1968)Google Scholar
  40. Platt, T. and B. Irwin. Phytoplankton production and nutrients in Bedford Basin, 1969–1970. Tech. Rep. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 247, 1–172 (1971)Google Scholar
  41. Redeke, H. C. On the occurrence of two pelagic copepods, Acartia bifilosa and Acartia tonsa, in the brackish waters of the Netherlands. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer. 9, 34–43 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Redfield, A. C. The history of a population of Limacina retroversa during its drift across the Gulf of Maine. Biol Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 76, 26–47 (1939)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sage, L. E. and S. S. Herman. Zooplankton of the Sandy Hook Bay area, N. J. Ches. Sci. 13, 29–39 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schnitker, D. Ecotypic variation in Ammonia beccarii (Linné). J. Foraminer. Res. 4, 216–223 (1974a)Google Scholar
  45. Schnitker, D. Postglacial emergence of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. geol. Soc. Am. 85, 491–494 (1974b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schnitker, D. Late glacial to Recent paleoceanography of the Gulf of Maine. 1st Int. Symp. Cont. Margin Benth. Foram., Part B, Maritime Sediments, Spec. Pub. 1, 385–392 (1976)Google Scholar
  47. Scott, T. On some Entomostraca from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Trans. nat. Hist. Soc. Glasg. 7, 46–52 (1907)Google Scholar
  48. Uye, S. and A. Fleminger. Effects of various environmental factors on egg development of several species of Acartia in Southern California. Mar. Biol. 38, 253–262 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Watling, L. Zoogeographic affinities of northeastern North American gammaridean Amphipoda. Bull. biol. Soc. Washington 3 256–282 (1979)Google Scholar
  50. Wheeler, W. M. The free-swimming copepods of the Woods Hole region. Bull. Bur. Fish., Wash. 19, 157–192 (1901)Google Scholar
  51. Willey, A. Notes on plankton collected across the mouth of the St. Croix River opposite to the Biological Station at St. Andrews, New Brunswick, in July and August 1912. Proc. zool. Soc. London 1913, 283–292 (1913)Google Scholar
  52. Woodmansee, R. A. The seasonal distribution of the zooplankton off Chicken Key in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Ecology 39, 247–262 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zillioux, E. J. and J. G. Gonzalez. Egg dormancy in a neritic calanoid copepod and its implications to overwintering in boreal waters. Fifth Europ. Mar. Biol. Symp: 217–230. Piccin Editore, Padova, Italy 1972Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. J. McAlice
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oceanography, Ira C. Darling CenterUniversity of Maine at OronoWalpoleUSA

Personalised recommendations