Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 39–48 | Cite as

On detritus as a food source for pelagic filter-feeders

Article

Abstract

Data on the amount of organic detritus within the particle size fraction 1 to 150 μ are presented for the Western Kiel Bight. Grouped into a mixed surface layer and a stratified lower layer in accordance with the main hydrographic features of the Western Baltic Sea, the rounded-off values show a seasonal variation between 100 and 600 mg m-3 expressed as dry weight of organic matter. The overall average for both layers is about 200 mg m-3. Organic detritus thus comprises more than 40% of total organic matter in the above size class, which is the class most easily accessible to the relatively small filter-feeders in this area. Attempting to trace the origin of organic detritus, a positive correlation to phytoplankton standing stock was found in some cases, suggesting the predominance of autochthonous detritus. Proceeding from the assumption that pelagic filter-feeders select their food mainly by size and not by taste, it is concluded that organic detritus plays an important role as a supplementary food source, being ingested together with phytoplankton and small nonmotile heterotrophs. The nutritive value of detritus is increased by the adsorption of dissolved organic matter and above all through the subsequent colonization by bacteria, which utilize the dissolved substances. Detritus particles serving as a substratum for bacteria thus form a means whereby dissolved organic substances reenter the food chain. The ingestion of detritus by filter-feeders is, therefore, thought to be instrumental in increasing the effectivity of energy transfer from the primary to the secondary food-chain level.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Detritus Dissolve Organic Matter Autochthonous Particle Size Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Dietrich, G.: Die natürlichen Regionen von Nordund Ostsee auf hydrographischer Grundlage. Kieler Meeresforsch. 7, 35–67 (1950)Google Scholar
  2. Ferguson, R.L. and P. Rublee: Contribution of bacteria to standing crop of coastal plankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 141–145 (1976)Google Scholar
  3. Gieskes, W.W.: Primary production, nutrients, and size spectra of suspended particles in the southern North Sea, 46 pp. Texel: Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Publications and Reports No. 1972-16, 1972Google Scholar
  4. Gordon, D.C., Jr.: A microscopic study of organic particles in the North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 17, 175–186 (1970)Google Scholar
  5. Holm-Hansen, O. and C.R. Booth: The measurements of adenosine triphosphate in the ocean and its ecological significance. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11, 510–519 (1966)Google Scholar
  6. — and H.W. Paerl: The applicability of ATP determination for estimation of microbial biomass and metabolic activity. Memorie Ist. ital. Idrobiol. 29 (Suppl.), 149–168 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. Jørgensen, C.B.: Biology of suspension feeding, 357 pp. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1966Google Scholar
  8. Krey, J.: Der Detritus im Meere. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 26, 263–280 (1961)Google Scholar
  9. —, K. Banse und E. Hagmeier: Über die Bestimmung von Eiweiß im Plankton mittels der Biuretreaktion. Kieler Meeresforsch. 13, 35–40 (1957)Google Scholar
  10. Le Fèvre-Lehoërff, G.: Populations planctoniques d'un estuaire à marée: le rivière de Morlaix, 212 pp. Thèse du Doctorat, Faculté des Sciences de Brest 1972Google Scholar
  11. Lenz, J.: Die Teilchengrößenanalyse und Mengenbestimmung des Detritus in Seewasserproben. Kieler Meeresforsch. 24, 85–94 (1968)Google Scholar
  12. —: A new type of plankton pump on the vacuum principle. Deep-Sea Res. 19, 453–460 (1972)Google Scholar
  13. Lenz, J.: Untersuchung zum Nahrungsgefüge im Pelagial der Kieler Bucht. Der Gehalt an Phytoplankton, Zooplankton und organischem Detritus in Abhängigkeit von Wasserschichtung, Tiefe und Jahreszeit, 186 pp. Habilitationsschrift, Universität Kiel 1974aGoogle Scholar
  14. —: On the amount and size distribution of suspended organic matter in the Kiel Bight. Ber. dt. wiss. Kommn Meeresforsch. 23, 209–225 (1974b)Google Scholar
  15. Lohmann, H.: Untersuchung zur Feststellung des vollständigen Gehaltes des Meeres an Plankton. Wiss. Meeresunters. (Abt. Kiel) 10, 131–370 (1908)Google Scholar
  16. Melnikow, I.A.: Use of histochemical reagents to determine the biochemical composition of detritus. Okeanologia 14, 922–926 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Neihof, R. and G. Loeb: Dissolved organic matter in seawater and the electric charge of immersed surfaces. J. mar. Res. 32, 5–12 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. Nemoto, T. and K. Ishikawa: Organic particulate and aggregate matters stained by histological reagents in the East China Sea. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan 25, 281–290 (1969)Google Scholar
  19. Paffenhöfer, G.A. and J.D.H. Strickland: A note on the feeding of Calanus helgolandicus on detritus. Mar. Biol. 5, 97–99 (1970)Google Scholar
  20. Parsons, T.R.: Suspended organic matter in sea water. Prog. Oceanogr. 1, 205–239 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. — and H. Seki: Importance and general implications of organic matter in aquatic environments. In: Symposium on organic matter in natural waters, pp 1–21. Ed. by D.W. Hood. Alaska: University of Alaska 1970Google Scholar
  22. — and J.D.H. Strickland: Oceanic detritus. Science, N.Y. 136, 313–314 (1962)Google Scholar
  23. Riley, G.A.: Organic aggregates in seawater and the dynamics of their formation and utilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 8, 372–381 (1963)Google Scholar
  24. —: Particulate and organic matter in sea water. Adv. mar. Biol. 8, 1–118 (1970)Google Scholar
  25. —, P.J. Wangersky and D. van Hemert: Organic aggregates in tropical and subtropical surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 546–550 (1964)Google Scholar
  26. Schinkowski, H.: Untersuchung über den Einfluß einiger produktionsbiologischer Parameter auf die Sichttiefe im Meere. Kieler Meeresforsch. 27, 4–19 (1971)Google Scholar
  27. Schnack, S.: Untersuchung zur Nahrungsbiologie der Copepoden (Crustacea) in der Kieler Bucht, 146 pp. Dissertation, Kiel 1975Google Scholar
  28. Siedler, G. und G. Hatje: Temperature, Salzgehalt und Dichte. In: Meereskunde der Ostsee, pp 43–60. Ed. by L. Magaard and G. Rheinheimer. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1974Google Scholar
  29. Steele, J.H.: Notes on some theoretical problems in production ecology. In: Primary productivity in aquatic environments, pp 385–398. Ed. by C.R. Goldman. Berkeley: University of California Press 1965Google Scholar
  30. —: The structure of marine ecosystems, 128 pp. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press 1974Google Scholar
  31. Steemann Nielsen, E.: (Contribution to a discussion). In: Marine biology 1. Proceedings of the First International Interdisciplinary Conference, pp 47–48. Ed. by G.A. Riley. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences 1963Google Scholar
  32. UNESCO: Determination of photosynthetic pigments in sea water. Monogr. oceanogr. Methodol. (UNESCO) 1, 1–65 (1966)Google Scholar
  33. Zimmermann, R.: Entwicklung und Anwendung von fluoreszenzrasterelektronenmikroskopischen Methoden zur Ermittlung der Bakterienmenge in Wasserproben, 176 pp. Dissertation, Kiel 1975Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Lenz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität KielKielGermany (FRG)

Personalised recommendations