Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 23–32 | Cite as

Continuous Plankton Records: Seasonal cycles of phytoplankton and copepods in the North Atlantic ocean and the North Sea

  • J. M. Colebrook
Article

Abstract

Data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey of the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea are used to study geographical variations in the amplitude, duration and timing of the seasonal cycles of total phytoplankton and total copepods. It is shown that the distribution of overwintering stocks influences the distributions throughout the year. There is a relationship between the timing of the spring increase of phytoplankton and the amplitude of the seasonal variation in sea surface temperature. In the open ocean, the timing of the spring increase of phytoplankton corresponds with the spring warming of the surface waters. In the North Sea the spring increase occurs earlier, associated, perhaps, with transient periods of vertical stability, resulting in a relatively slower rate of increase. It is suggested that in the open ocean the higher rate of increase is under-exploited by copepods due to low overwintering stocks and longer generation times. Exceptionally early spring increases of phytoplankton off the west coast of Greenland and over the Norwegian shelf are probably associated with permanent haloclines. A high and late autumn peak of phytoplankton off the coast of Portugal may be associated with coastal upwelling.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Seasonal Cycle Open Ocean North Atlantic Ocean Vertical Stability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Colebrook, J.M.: Continuous plankton records: methods of analysis, 1950–1959. Bull. mar. Ecol. 5, 51–64 (1960)Google Scholar
  2. —: The continuous plankton recorder survey: automatic data processing methods. Bull. mar. Ecol. 8, 123–142 (1975)Google Scholar
  3. —: Continuous plankton records: zooplankton and environment, north-east Atlantic and North Sea, 1948–1975. Acta oceanol. 1, 9–23 (1978)Google Scholar
  4. —, and G.A. Robinson: Continuous plankton records: seasonal cycles of phytoplankton and copepods in the north-eastern Atlantic and the North Sea. Bull. mar. Ecol. 6, 123–139 (1965)Google Scholar
  5. Craig, R.E.: A note on the dependence of catches on temperature and wind in the Buchan prespawning herring fishery. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 25, 185–190 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Glover, R.S.: The continuous plankton recorder survey of the North Atlantic. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 19, 189–210 (1967)Google Scholar
  7. Gran, H.H. and T. Braarud: A quantitative study of the phytoplankton in the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf of Maine. J. biol. Bd Can. 1, 279–467 (1935)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rae, K.M.: Continuous plankton records: explanation and methods, 1946–1949. Hull Bull. mar. Ecol. 3, 135–155 (1952)Google Scholar
  9. Riley, G.A.: Phytoplankton of the north central Sargasso Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 2, 252–270 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Robinson, G.A.: Continuous plankton records: variations in the seasonal cycles of phytoplankton in the north Atlantic. Bull. mar. Ecol. 6, 333–345 (1970)Google Scholar
  11. Schroeder, E.H.: Average monthly temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 12, 323–343 (1965)Google Scholar
  12. Sherman, K.: Seasonal and areal distribution of Gulf of Main zooplankton, 1963. Spec. Publs int. Commn NW. Atlant. Fish. 6, 611–623 (1965)Google Scholar
  13. Smayda, T.J.: A survey of phytoplankton dynamics in the coastal waters from Cape Hatteras to Nantucket. Mar. Publ. Ser. Univ. Rhode Isl. 2 (Pt. 3), 1–100 (1973)Google Scholar
  14. Sømme, J.D.: Animal plankton of the Norwegian coast waters and the open sea. FiskDir. Skr. (Ser. Havunders.) 4 (9), 1–163 (1934)Google Scholar
  15. Tomczak, G. und E. Goedecke: Die thermische Schichtung der Nordsee auf Grund des mittleren Jahrganges der Temperatur in 1°/2- und 1°-Feldern. Dt. hydrogr. z. 8 (ErgänzHft Reihe B, 4°), 1–182 (1964)Google Scholar
  16. Williams, R.: Sampling at Ocean Weather Station India. Annls biol., Copenh. 28–32 (1973–1977). (Articles bearing same title appear in consecutive yearly volumes from 1973–1977, inclusive)Google Scholar
  17. Wooster, W.S., A. Bakum and D.R. McLain: The seasonal upwelling cycle along the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic. J. mar. Res. 34, 131–141 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Oceanographic Atlas of the North Atlantic Ocean. Section II. Physical properties, 300 pp. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office 1967. (Publ. No. 700; copies available from: U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, Washington, D.C. 20390, USA)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Colebrook
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Marine Environmental ResearchPlymouthEngland

Personalised recommendations