Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 120, Issue 1, pp 95–106 | Cite as

Reproductive cycle of Centrostephanus rodgersii (Echinoidea), with recommendations for the establishment of a sea urchin fishery in New South Wales

  • C. K. King
  • O. Hoegh-Guldberg
  • M. Byrne
Article
  • 229 Downloads

Abstract

The reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Agassiz) was investigated in two populations, at Clovelly and Little Bay, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. C. rodgersii were collected at monthly intervals from February 1992 through January 1993. The reproductive cycle was determined by histological examination of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, monthly measurements of gonad index (GI), and induction of spawning by KCl injection. C. rodgersii has an annual reproductive cycle that was highly synchronous in both populations. From February to June, gametogenesis was accompanied by a decline in the amount of nutritive tissue in the gonads. The urchins were mature from June to September, with peak spawning between July and August, as indicated by a significant drop in GI. The breeding season of C. rodgersii therefore coincides with the lowest sea temperatures and the shortest days of the year. The gonads returned to the recovering condition within a month of spawning, with a substantial thickening of the nutritive layer along the gonad wall, and the GI returned to near pre-spawning levels. As a result, the spent phase was rarely found in C. rodgersii. With the exception of a significant decrease in the GI following spawning of urchins from the Clovelly population, the GI measurements did not show any distinct pattern through time. Specimens spawned in response to KCl injection from mid-May to early October, with the maximum response in July. Although all individuals sampled were at a similar stage of maturity at any one time, inter-site differences were seen with all of the methods used. Gonad indices from Little Bay were consistently higher and less variable than those from Clovelly for most of the year. The Little Bay population could also be induced to spawn for a longer period of time than could the Clovelly population. The breeding season of the Little Bay population appears to be longer than that of the Clovelly population. The relationship between size and sexual maturity was also examined. All C. rodgersii with a test diameter of >60 mm could be induced to spawn and produced viable gametes. C. rodgersii has been nominated for commercial exploitation in New South Wales, and the results of this investigation are used to make recommendations on the timing and size limits for a fishery utilising this species.

Keywords

Breeding Season Reproductive Cycle Gonad Index Test Diameter Monthly Measurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrew NL (1986) The interaction between diet and density in influencing reproductive output in the echinoid Evechinus chloroticus (Val.). J exp mar Biol Ecol 97:63–79Google Scholar
  2. Andrew NL (1991) Changes in subtidal habitat following mass mortality of sea urchins in Botany Bay, New South Wales. Aust J Ecol 16:353–362Google Scholar
  3. Andrew NL, Underwood AJ (1989) Patterns of abundance of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Agassiz) on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. J exp mar Biol Ecol 131:61–80Google Scholar
  4. Andrew NL, Underwood AJ (1993) Density-dependent foraging in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii on shallow subtidal reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 99:89–98Google Scholar
  5. Bauer JC (1976) Growth, aggregation, and maturation in the echinoid, Diadema antillarum. Bull mar Sci 26:273–277Google Scholar
  6. Bernard FR (1977) Fishery and reproductive cycle of the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, in British Columbia. J Fish Res Bd Can 34:604–610Google Scholar
  7. Byrne M (1990) Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland. Mar Biol 104:275–289Google Scholar
  8. Chatlynne LG (1969) A histochemical study of oogenesis in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 136:167–184Google Scholar
  9. Derwent L (1992) Draft management plan-abalone, sea urchin and turban snail fishery (1993–1997). NSW Fisheries, Pyrmont (Rep Nov. 1992)Google Scholar
  10. Ebert TA (1982) Longevity, life history, and relative body wall size in sea urchins. Ecol Monogr 52:353–394Google Scholar
  11. Fletcher WJ (1987) Interactions among subtidal Australian sea urchins, gastropods, and algae: effects of experimental removals. Ecol Monogr 57:89–109Google Scholar
  12. Fuji A (1960) Studies on the biology of the sea urchin I. Superficial and histological changes in gametogenic processes of two sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus nudus and S. intermedius. Bull Fac Fish Hokkaido Univ 11:1–14Google Scholar
  13. Guillou M, Michel C (1993) Reproduction and growth of Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Southern Brittany. J mar biol Ass UK 73:179–192Google Scholar
  14. Gonor JJ (1972) Gonad growth in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) and the assumptions of gonad index methods. J exp mar Biol Ecol 10: 89–103Google Scholar
  15. Gonor JJ (1973a) Reproductive cycles in Oregon populations of the echinoid, Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson). I. Annual gonad growth and ovarian gametogenic cycles. J exp mar Biol Ecol 12:45–64Google Scholar
  16. Gonor JJ (1973b) Reproductive cycles in Oregon populations of the echinoid, Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson). II. Seasonal changes in oocyte growth and in abundance of gametogenic stages in the ovary. J exp mar Biol Ecol 12:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrold C, Pearse JS (1987) The ecological role of echinoderms in kelp forests. In: Jangoux M, Lawrence JM (eds) Echinoderm studies. Vol 2. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 137–231Google Scholar
  18. Hori R, Phang VPE, Toong JL (1987) Preliminary study on the pattern of gonadal development of the sea urchin, Diadema setosum, off the coast of Singapore. Zool Sci 4:665–673Google Scholar
  19. Jones GP, Andrew NL (1990) Herbivory and patch dynamics on rocky reefs in temperate Australasia: the roles of fish and sea urchins. Aust J Ecol 15:505–520Google Scholar
  20. Kennedy B, Pearse JS (1975) Lunar synchronisation of the monthly reproductive rhythm in the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus Verrill. J exp mar Biol Ecol 17:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. King CK (1992) The reproduction and development of the echinoid Centrostephanus rodgersii — a potential bioassay organism. B. Sc (Honours) thesis, The University of Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  22. Laegdsgaard P, Byrne M, Anderson DT (1991) Reproduction of sympatric populations of Heliocidaris erythrogramma and H. tuberculata (Echinoidea) in New South Wales. Mar Biol 110:359–374Google Scholar
  23. Lawrence J (1987) A functional biology of echinoderms. Croom Helm Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawrence JM, Sammarco PW (1982) Effects of feeding on the environment: Echinoidea. In: Jangoux M, Lawrence JM (eds) Echinoderm nutrition. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 499–519Google Scholar
  25. Lessios HA (1984) Possible prezygotic reproductive isolation in sea urchins separated by the Ismuth of Panama. Evolution 38: 1144–1148Google Scholar
  26. Lock N (1993) Development of the sea urchin sperm fertilisation test. Toxicity testing program. Progress Report No. 2, March 1993. Environment Management Unit, Sydney Water Board, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  27. Mortensen Th (1940) A monograph of the Echinoidea. III. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  28. O'Connor C, Riley G, Bloom D (1976) Reproductive preiodicities of the echinoids of the Solitary Islands in the light of some ecological variables. II. Superficial and histological changes in the gonads of Centrostephanus rodgersii (Clark), Phyllacanthus parvispinus (Tennison Woods), Heliocidaris tuberculata (Clark), and Tripneustes gratilla (Linneus), and their relevance to aquaculture. Thalassia jugosl 12:245–267Google Scholar
  29. O'Connor C, Riley G, Lefebvre S, Bloom D (1978) Environmental influences on histological changes in the reproductive cycle of four New South Wales sea urchins. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 15: 1–17Google Scholar
  30. Pearse JS (1969a) Reproductive periodicities of Indo-Pacific invertebrates in the Gulf of Suez. I. The echinoids Prionicidaris baculosa (Lamarck) and Lovenia elongata (Gray). Bull mar Sci 19: 323–350Google Scholar
  31. Pearse JS (1969b) Reproductive periodicities of Indo-Pacific invertebrates in the Gulf of Suez. II. The echinoid Echinometra mathaei (De Blainville). Bull mar Sci 19:580–613Google Scholar
  32. Pearse JS (1970) Reproductive periodicities of Indo-Pacific invertebrates in the Gulf of Suez. III. The echinoid Diadema setosum (Leske). Bull mar Sci 20:697–720Google Scholar
  33. Pearse JS (1972) A monthly reproductive rhythm in the diadematid sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Verrill). J exp mar Biol Ecol 8:167–186Google Scholar
  34. Pearse JS, Cameron RA (1991) Echinodermata: Echinoidea. In: Giese AC, Pearse JS, Pearse VB (eds) Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Vol VI. Echinoderms and lophophorates. The Boxwood Press, California, pp 513–662Google Scholar
  35. Pearse JS, Pearse VB, Davis KK (1986) Photoperiodic regulation of gametogenesis and growth in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. J exp Zool 237:107–118Google Scholar
  36. Underwood AJ, Kingsford MJ, Andrew NL (1991) Patterns in shallow subtidal marine assemblages along the coast of New South Wales. J Aust Ecol 6:231–249Google Scholar
  37. Walker MM (1982) Reproductive periodicity in Evechinus chloroticus in the Hauraki Gulf. N. Z. NZ J mar Freshwat Res 16:19–25Google Scholar
  38. Williams DHC, Anderson DT (1975) The reproductive system, embryonic development and metamorphosis of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma (Val.) (Echinoidea: Echinometridae). Aust J Zool 23:371–403Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. K. King
    • 1
  • O. Hoegh-Guldberg
    • 1
  • M. Byrne
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences, Zoology (A08)The University of SydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and HistologyThe University of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations