Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 185–197 | Cite as

Resource-partitioning and predation impact of a low-latitude myctophid community

  • T. L. Hopkins
  • J. V. GartnerJr.
Article

Abstract

This study, based on data collected during summer 1985 in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, examined the degree of overlap in two prime niche parameters, space and food, in 17 of the most abundant myctophid species which inhabit the epipelagic zone at night. Cluster-analyses of vertical distribution information and diet characteristics revealed that while large groups of species overlapped (>60%) in either vertical distributions or diet, when both niche parameters were considered together, little interspecific or intraspecific (size class) overlap occurred. Our data suggest that for myctophids trophic competition is reduced through resource-partitioning, although with considerable overlap at niche boundaries. Niche separation presumably is the result of competition during the evolution of the ecosystem and is maintained presently as “diffuse competition”: the effect on a species of the combined competition from all other species at that trophic level. We suggest that the large degree of niche overlap enables the “packing” of over 50 myctophid species in the epipelagic zone at night. Our calculations indicate that myctophid predation nightly removes 2% of the zooplankton biomass. Myctophid predation is selective in that greatest pressure is on certain size classes and types of prey (copepods, ostracods and euphausiids). In the case of copepods, impact is greatest on the larger, more mature stages and hence on the breeding population. It is estimated that myctophids account for at least one-third of the daily production of zooplankton removed from the epipelagic zone by micronekton in the eastern Gulf.

Keywords

Biomass Size Class Trophic Level Vertical Distribution Mature Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Backus, R. H., Craddock, J. E., Haedrich, R. L., Robison, B. H. (1977). Atlantic mesopelagic zoogeography. Mem. Sears Fdn mar. Res. 1: 266–287Google Scholar
  2. Badcock, J. (1970). The vertical distribution of mesopelagic fishes collected in the SOND cruise. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 50: 1001–1044Google Scholar
  3. Baird, R. C., Hopkins, T. L., Wilson, D. F. (1975). Diet and feeding chronology of Diaphus taaningi (Myctophidae) in the Cariaco Trench. Copeia 1975: 356–365Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, M. A. (1983). Species structure and temporal stability of mesopelagic fish assemblages in the Central Gyres of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 74: 245–256Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, J. L., Hopkins, T. L. (1989). Aspects of the ecology of the calanoid copepod genus Pleuromamma in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Contr. mar. Sci. Univ. Tex. 31: 119–136Google Scholar
  6. Berkes, F. (1976). Ecology of euphausiids in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 33: 1894–1905Google Scholar
  7. Binet, D., Suisse De Sainte Claire, E., (1975). Le copépod planctonique Calanoides carinatus. Répartition et cycle biologique au large de la Côte d'Ivoire. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Sér. Océanogr. 13: 15–30Google Scholar
  8. Bray, J. R., Curtis, J. T. (1957). An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecol. Monogr. 27: 325–349Google Scholar
  9. Cailliet, G. M. (1972). The study of feeding habits of two marine fishes in relation to plankton ecology. Trans. Am. microsc. Soc. 91: 88–89Google Scholar
  10. Clarke, T. A. (1973). Some aspects of the ecology of lanternfishes (Myctophidae) in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. Fish. Bull. U.S. 71: 401–434Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, T. A. (1978). Diel feeding patterns of 16 species of mesopelagic fishes from Hawaiian waters. Fish. Bull. U.S. 76: 495–513Google Scholar
  12. Dalpadado, P. Gjøsaeter, J. (1987). Observations on mesopelagic fish from the Red Sea. Mar. Biol. 96: 173–183Google Scholar
  13. Domanski, P. (1984). The diel migrations and distributions within a mesopelagic community in the North East Atlantic. 8. A multivariate analysis of community structure. Prog. Oceanogr. 13: 491–511Google Scholar
  14. Donaldson H. A. (1975). Vertical distribution and feeding of sergestid shrimps (Decapoda: Natantia) collected near Bermuda. Mar. Biol. 31: 37–50Google Scholar
  15. Elliott, J. M., Persson, L. (1978). The estimation of daily rates of food consumption for fish. J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 977–993Google Scholar
  16. El-Sayed, S. Z. (1972). Primary productivity and standing crop of phytoplankton. In: Bushnell, V. C. (ed.) Chemistry, primary productivity, and benthic algae of the Gulf of Mexico. Serial atlas of the marine environment. Folio 22. American Geophysical Society, New York, p. 8–13Google Scholar
  17. Field, J. G., Clarke, K. R., Warwick, R. M. (1982). A practical strategy for analyzing multispecies distribution patterns. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 8: 37–52Google Scholar
  18. Flock, M. E., Hopkins, T. L. (1992). Species composition, vertical distribution and food habits of the sergestid shrimp assemblage in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. J Crustacean Biol. 12: 210–223Google Scholar
  19. Gartner, J. V., Jr., Conley, W. J., Hopkins, T. L. (1989). Escapement of fishes from midwater trawls: a case study using lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae). Fish. Bull. U.S. 87: 213–222Google Scholar
  20. Gartner, J. V. Jr., Hopkins, T., Baird, R. C., Milliken, D. M. (1987). The lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Fish. Bull. U.S. 85: 81–98Google Scholar
  21. Gibbs, R. H., Jr., Goodyear, R. J., Keene, M. J., Brown, D. W. (1971). Biological studies of the Bermuda Ocean Acre. II. Vertical distribution and ecology of the lanternfish (family Myctophidae). Rep. U.S. Navy Underwat. Syst. Cent. 1–141Google Scholar
  22. Gorelova, T. A. (1975). The feeding of fishes of the family Myctophidae. J. Ichthyol. (USSR) 15: 208–219Google Scholar
  23. Gorelova, T. A. (1984). A quantitative assessment of consumption of zooplankton by epipelagic lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Ichthyol. (USSR) 23: 106–113Google Scholar
  24. Hayward, T. L., McGowan, J. A. (1979). Pattern and structure in an oceanic zooplankton community. Am. Zool. 19:1045–1055Google Scholar
  25. Hefferman, J. J., Hopkins, T. L., (1981). Vertical distribution and feeding of the shrimp genera Gennadas and Bentheogennema (Decapoda: Penaeidea) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. J. Crustaccan Biol. 1: 461–473Google Scholar
  26. Hopkins, T. L. (1982). The vertical distribution of zooplankton in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Res. 29: 1069–1083Google Scholar
  27. Hopkins, T. L. (1985). Food web of an Antarctic midwater ecosystem. Mar. Biol 89: 197–212Google Scholar
  28. Hopkins, T. L. (1987). Midwater food web in McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Mar. Biol. 96: 93–106Google Scholar
  29. Hopkins, T. L., Baird, R. C. (1975). Net feeding in mesopelagic fishes. Fish. Bull. U.S. 73: 908–914Google Scholar
  30. Hopkins, T. L., Baird, R. C. (1985). Aspects of the trophic ecology of the mesopelagic fish Lampanyctus alatus (family Myctophidae) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Biol. Oceanogr. 3: 285–313Google Scholar
  31. Hopkins, T. L., Gartner, J. V., Jr., Flock, M. E. (1989). The caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Natantia) assemblage in the mesopelagic zone of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bull. mar. Sci. 45: 1–14Google Scholar
  32. Hopkins, T. L., Lancraft, T. M. (1984). The composition and standing stock of mesopelagic micronekton at 27°N 86°W in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Contr. mar. Sci. Univ. Tex. 27: 143–158Google Scholar
  33. Hopkins, T. L., Lancraft, T. M., Torres, J. J., Donnelly, J. (1992). Community structure and trophic ecology of zooplankton in the Scotia Sea marginal ice zone in winter (1988). Deep-Sea Res (in press)Google Scholar
  34. Hopkins, T. L., Torres, J. J. (1989). Midwater food web in the vicinity of a marginal ice zone in the western Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 36: 543–560Google Scholar
  35. Hulley, P. A. (1981). Results of the research cruises of FRV “Walter Herwig” to South America LVIII. Family Myctophidae (Osteichthyes, Myctophiformes). Arch. Fisch Wiss 31: 1–300Google Scholar
  36. Hulley, P. A., Krefft, G. (1985). A zoogeographic analysis of the fishes of the family Myctophidae (Osteichthyes, Myctophiformes) from the 1979-Sargasso Sea expedition of RV “Anton Dohrn”. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 96: 19–53Google Scholar
  37. Hutchinson, G. E. (1959). Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Nat. 93: 145–159Google Scholar
  38. Hutchinson G. E. (1961). The paradox of the plankton. Am. Nat. 95: 137–145Google Scholar
  39. Kinzer, J., Schulz, K. (1985). Vertical distribution and feeding patterns of midwater fish in the central equatorial Atlantic. I. Myctophidae. Mar. Biol. 85: 313–322Google Scholar
  40. Klein Breteler, W. M. C., Gonzalez, S. R. (1986). Culture and development of Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoida) at different conditions of temperature and food. In: Schriever, G., Schminke, H. K., Shih, C. T. (eds.) Syllogeus 58; Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Copepoda. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, p. 71–84Google Scholar
  41. Koslow, J. A. (1983). Zooplankton community structure in the North Sea and Northeast Atlantic: development and test of a biological model. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sciences 40: 1912–1924Google Scholar
  42. Legand, M., Bourrett, P., Fourmanoir, P., Grandperrin, R., Gueredrat, J. A., Michel, A., Rancuriel, P., Repelin, R., Roger, C. (1972). Relations trophiques et distributions verticales en milieu pélagique dans l'océan Pacifique intertropical. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Sér. Océanogr 10: 303–393Google Scholar
  43. Lehman, J. T. (1988). Ecological principles affecting community structure and secondary production by zooplankton in marine and freshwater environments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33:931–945Google Scholar
  44. Longhurst, A. R. (1976). Interactions between zooplankton and phytoplankton profiles in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 23: 729–754Google Scholar
  45. MacArthur, R. H. (1972). Geographical ecology. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Maynard, S. D., Riggs, F. V., Walters, J. F. (1975). Mesopelagic micronekton in Hawaiian waters: faunal composition, standing stock, and diel vertical migration. Fish. Bull. U.S. 73: 726–736Google Scholar
  47. McGowan, J. A. (1974). The nature of oceanic ecosystems. In: Miller, C. B. (ed.) The biology of the oceanic Pacific. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, p. 9–28Google Scholar
  48. McGowan, J. A., Walker, P. W. (1979) Structure in the copepod community of the North Pacific Central Gyre. Ecol. Monogr. 49: 195–226Google Scholar
  49. Merrett, N. R., Roe, H. S. J. (1974). Patterns and selectivity in the feeding of certain mesopelagic fishes. Mar. Biol 28: 115–126Google Scholar
  50. Michel, H. B., Foyo, M. (1976) Caribbean zooplankton. Pt 1. Siphonophora, Heteropoda. Copepoda. Euphausiacea, Chaetognatha and Salpidae. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. (Rep. Off. nav. Res., Dep. U.S. Navy, Stock No. 008-051-00066-6)Google Scholar
  51. Passarella, K. C., Hopkins, T. L. (1991). Species composition and food habits of the micronektonic cephalopod assemblage in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bull. mar. Sci. 49:638–659Google Scholar
  52. Pianka, E. R. (1974). Niche overlap and diffuse competition. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:2141–2145Google Scholar
  53. Raymont, J. E. G. (1983). Plankton and productivity in the oceans 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Zooplankton Pergamon Press, Oxford, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  54. Robison, B. H. (1984) Herbivory by the myctophid fish Ceratoscopelus warmingii. Mar. Biol. 84:119–123Google Scholar
  55. Roger, C. (1974). Les euphausiaces du Pacifique equatorial et sudtropical: zoogeographie, ecologie, biologie et situation trophique. Mém Off. Rech. scient. techn. Outre-Mer 71: 1–265Google Scholar
  56. Sameoto, D. D. (1988). Feeding of lantern fish Benthosema glaciale off the Nova Scotia shelf. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 44: 113–129Google Scholar
  57. Sarle, W. S. (1982). Introduction to SAS clustering procedures. In: Ray, A. A. (ed.) SAS users guide: statistics. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, North Carolina, p. 432–447Google Scholar
  58. Travers, M. (1971). Diversité du microplancton du Golfe de Marsielle en 1964. Mar. Biol. 8: 308–343Google Scholar
  59. Wickstead, J. H. (1962). Food and feeding in pelagic copepods. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 139: 545–555Google Scholar
  60. Willis, J. M., Pearcy, W. G. (1980) Spatial and temporal variations in the population size structure of three lanternfishes (Myctophidae) off Oregon, USA. Mar. Biol. 57: 181–191Google Scholar
  61. Young, R. E., Roper, C. F. E. (1969). A monograph of the Cephalopoda of the North Atlantic: the family Cycloteuthidae. Smithson. Contr. Zool. 5: 1–24Google Scholar
  62. Zaret, T. M., Rand, A. S. (1971). Competition in tropical stream fishes: support for the competitive exclusion principal. Ecology 52: 336–342Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. L. Hopkins
    • 1
  • J. V. GartnerJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of South FloridaSt. PetersburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Natural ResourcesFlorida Marine Research InstituteSt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations