Can a State be held liable to another State or to citizens of another State for damage caused by (a) the State's own weather modification activities; (b) weather modification activities conducted by a nongovernmental party within its borders, or (c) weather modification activities conducted by persons within its control but outside its borders? What measures can be taken by a State to minimize its liability for weather modification activities? This article tries to answer these questions. It focuses on liability under international law, and emphasizes issues related to cloud-seeding to affect precipitation and to hurricane modification.
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Weiss, E.B. International liability for weather modification. Climatic Change 1, 267–290 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00166180