, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 113–123 | Cite as

The freeliving freshwater cyclopoid copepoda (crustacea) of Malaysia and Singapore

  • C. H. Fernando
  • J. E. Ponyi


A study of freeliving freshwater Cyclopoida of Malaysia and Singapore yielded 15 species. Some remarks are made on the morphology including a species belonging to the schmeili group of Thermocyclops. Shallow and vegetation-bearing habitats had the largest numbers of species. Most of the species are cosmopolitan. The three common species, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops crassus and Microcyclops varicans are eurytopic. M. leuckarti and T. crassus are the only species occurring commonly in limnetic situations in contrast to a much wider limnetic Cyclopoida species spectrum in temperate lakes. There appears to be a reduction in Cyclopoida from temperate to tropical latitudes, but the data on which this are based are at present fragmentary.


Freshwater Cyclopoida Malaysia and Singapore 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alfred, E. R. 1961. The Singapore freshwater fishes. Malay. Nat. J. 15: 1–19.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. 1965. Report of the Tropical Fish Culture Research Institute, Batu Barendam, Malacca for 1965. pp. 24–26.Google Scholar
  3. Boonsom, J. 1970. (Preliminary report of freshwater plankton found in Thailand) (in Thai). Annual Report Fish. Res. Unit. Inland Fisheries Division, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 191–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bricker, K. S., Wongrat, L. & Gannon, J. E. 1978. Composition and distribution of crustacean plankton in twelve water bodies in Thailand. Kaesetsart University Fishery Research Bulletin, 10: 1–14.Google Scholar
  5. Chinappa, C. C. & Victor, R. 1979a. Achiasmatic meiosis and complex heterozygosity in female cyclopoid copepods (Copepoda, Crustacea). Chromosoma 71: 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chinappa, C. C. & Victor, R. 1979b. Cytotaxonomic studies on some cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Ontario, Canada, Can. J. Zool. 57: 1597–1604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dumont, H. & Van de Velde, I. 1977. Report on a collection of Cladocera and Copepoda from Nepal. Hydrobiologia, 53: 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dussart, B. 1969. Les copépdes des eaux continentales. Cyclopoides et Biologie. N. Boubee et Cie, Paris. 292 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Dussart, B. 1974. Biology of inland waters in humid tropical Asia In: Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia: Natural Resources Research (UNESCO). 12: 331–353.Google Scholar
  10. Einsle, U. 1970. Études morphologiques sur des espèces de Thermocyclops (Crust. Cop.) d'Afrique et d'Europe. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Hydrobiol. 4: 13–38.Google Scholar
  11. Einsle, U. 1975. Revision der Gattung Cyclops s. str. speriell der abyssorum gruppe. Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol. 32: 57–219.Google Scholar
  12. Fernando, C. H. 1974. A guide to the freshwater fauna of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Supplement 4. Bull. Fish. Res. Stn. Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 25: 27–81.Google Scholar
  13. Fernando, C. H. 1977. The ecology of the aquatic fauna of rice fields with special reference to South East Asia. GEO-ECOTROP 1: 169–188.Google Scholar
  14. Fernando, C. H. 1981a. Lake and reservoir ecosystems in South East Asia (Oriental Region) In: Lake and reservoir ecosystems, Frieda B. Taub (Edit.), Elsevier, North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  15. Fernando, C. H. 1980a. The freshwater zooplankton of Sri Lanka, with a discussion of tropical freshwater zooplankton composition. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 65: 85–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernando, C. H. 1980b. The species and size composition of tropical freshwater zooplankton, with special reference to the Oriental Region (South East Asia). Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 65: 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernando, C. H. Furtado. J. I. Lim, R. P. 1979. The aquatic fauna of the world's rice fields. Wallaceana Supplement 2: 1–105, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  18. Gurney, R. 1933. British Freshwater Copepoda 3: 29–384. Ray Society, London.Google Scholar
  19. Harding, J. P. & Smith, W. A. t 96o. A key to the British freshwater cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Scient. Publ. FBA 18: 53 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, A. 1975. The microfauna of the University of Singapore pond. J. Singapore National Acad. Sci. 4: 100–105.Google Scholar
  21. Jothy, A. A. 1968. Preliminary observations of disused tin mining pools in Malaysia and their potential for fish production. Indo-Pacific Fish. Council, Occasional Paper 69/11: 1–21.Google Scholar
  22. Kiefer, F. 1933. Die freilebenden Copepoden der Binnengewässer von Insulinde. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 12: 519–621.Google Scholar
  23. Kiefer, F. 1936. Freilebende Suss- und Salzwasser-Copepoden von der Insel Haiti. Arch. Hydrobiol. 30: 263–317.Google Scholar
  24. Kiefer, F. 1939. Scientific results of the Yale North India Expedition. Biological Report No. 19. Freilebende Ruderfusskrebse (Crustacea, Copepoda) aus Nordwest and Sudindien (Pandschab, Kaschmir) Ladak Nilgirigebirge Mem. Indian Mus. 13: 83–203.Google Scholar
  25. Kiefer, F. & Fryer, G. 1978. Das Zooplankton der Binnengewässer. 26: 1–380, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  26. Lai, H. C. & Chua, T. E. 1976. Limnological features of Muda and Pedu reservoirs with an observation on their suitability for fish culture. Malaysian Agric. J. 50: 480–501.Google Scholar
  27. Lai, H. C. & Fernando, C. H. 1978. The freshwater Calonoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. Hydrobiologia 61: 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lim, R. P. & Furtado, 1975. Population changes in the aquatic fauna inhabiting the bladderwort, Utricularia flexuosa Vahl., in a tropical swamp, Tasek Bera, Malaysia. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 19: 1390–1397.Google Scholar
  29. Lim, R. P. in press. Population changes in the aquatic invertebrate fauna of rice fields in Tanjung Karang, Malaysia. Proc. 5th Internat. Soc. Trop. Ecol. Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  30. Lindberg, K. 1941. Cyclopides (Crustacés, Copépodes) de l'Inde VIII–X. Rec. Indian Mus. 43: 471–496.Google Scholar
  31. Lindberg, K. 1949a. Contributions de l'etude des Cyclopides (Crustacés, Copépodes). Kungl. Fysiogr. Sallsk. Lund. For 19: 98–121.Google Scholar
  32. Lindberg, K. 1949b. Cyclopides (Crustacés, Copépodes) de la Birmanie. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 74: 38–47.Google Scholar
  33. Lindberg, K. 1952. Cyclopides (Crustacés, Copépodes) du Royaume du Cambodge. Bull. Inst. Sci. Nat. Belg. 28: 1–16.Google Scholar
  34. Lindberg, K. 1954a. Cyclopides (Crustacés, Copépodes) d'Iles du Pacifique sud (Mélanésie et Micronésie) et de Borneo. Kungl. Fysiogr. Sallsk. Lund. For. 24: 161–174.Google Scholar
  35. Lindberg, K. 1954b. Cyclopides (Crustacés, Copépodes) du Mexique. Ark. Zoo. 7: 459–489.Google Scholar
  36. Mamaril, A. C. & Fernando, C. H. 1978. Freshwater zooplankton of the Philippines (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda), Bull. Natural Applied Science, Univ. Philippines, Manila 30: 109–211.Google Scholar
  37. Mizuno, T. & Mori, S. 1970. Preliminary hydrobiological survey of some Southeast Asian Inland waters, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 2: 77–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rylov, V. M. 1963. Fauna of the U.S.S.R. Crustacea, Vo. 3. Freshwater Cyclopoida, English Transl. Israel Program Scient. Transl. 314 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Seymour-Sewell, R. B. S. 1957. A review of the sub-genus Thermocyclops Kiefer of the genus Mesocyclops Sars, with a description of a new form of Mesocyclops (Thermocyclops) schmeili, Poppe and Mràzek. Rec. Indian Mus. 55: 69–119.Google Scholar
  40. Shirota, A., 1963. The plankton of South Vietnam. Publ. Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency, Japan 462 pp. and 27 pp. appendix.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, K. E. & Fernando, C. H. 1978a. A guide to the freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepod crustacea of Ontario. Univ. Waterloo. Biol. Ser. 18: 1–74.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, K. E. & Fernando, C. H. 1978b. The freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepoda of Cuba. Can. J. Zool. 56: 2015–2023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith, K. E. & Fernando, C. H. 1980. Guía para los Copepodes (Calonoida y Cyclopoida) de las aquas dulcis de Cuba. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Havana, 1–28.Google Scholar
  44. Spandl, H. 1925. Entomostraken von Borneo. Ann. Natur. Mus. Wien. 38: 89–95.Google Scholar
  45. Sprules, W. G. & Holtby, L. B. 1979. Body size and feeding ecology as an alternative to taxonomy for the study of limnetic zooplankton community structure. J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 36: 1354–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Šrámek-Hušek, R. 1953. Ňasi Kanono>zci (Copepoda of freshwaters), in Czech., Praha, 61 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Sudzuki, M. 1973. Fauna and flora of South East Asia. Malaysian animals and plants most commonly found. RESAM, Penang, Malaysia. 209 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Ueno, M. 1973. [Freshwater Biology of Japan] (Japanese), Tokyo, 760 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Wilson, M. S. & Yeatman, H. C. 1959. Copepoda In: Freshwater Biology, W. T. Edmondson (Edit.) John Wiley, New York, pp. 735–815Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk b. v. Publishers 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. H. Fernando
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. E. Ponyi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Hungarian Academy of SciencesBiological Research InstituteTihanyHungary

Personalised recommendations