Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 134, Issue 2, pp 121–140 | Cite as

River Dan, headwater of the Jordan, an aquatic oasis of the Middle East

  • F. D. Por
  • H. J. Bromley
  • Ch. Dimentman
  • G. N. Herbst
  • R. Ortal
Article

Abstract

River Dan is the largest of the headwater rivers of the Jordan. The karstic exsurgence of the Dan has a seasonally stable output, a long stretch of strongly turbulent flow, stable temperature around 15.5°C and high oxygen saturation. A total of 156 taxa, mainly at the species level, were identified from the river. These species are almost exclusively of Palearctic origin. About half of the species are limited to the northernmost part of Israel. The faunal complex described, does not present any longitudinal zonation for the 5 kilometers of turbulent flow; neither does it present seasonal changes in species composition. River Dan is considered to be a post-Pleistocenic river which has an important function of refugium for a wide area of aquatic water-bodies in the area, including the presently drained Lake Hula. It is suggested that in the Illies scheme of stream classification, River Dan might represent a type of stream belonging to a ‘pseudorhithral’ along with other stenothermic warm water torrents of the tropical-subtropical climatic belt.

Keywords

Jordan River Freshwater biogeography Stream typology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamson, D. A., F. Gasse, F. A. Street & M. A. J. Williams, 1980. Late Quaternary history of the Nile. Nature 288: 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan, D., G. N. Herbst, R. Ortal & Y. Regev, 1983. Invertebrate drift in the Dan river, Israel. (Abstract.)Google Scholar
  3. Alouf, N. J., 1982. Cycle de l'eau et de quelques paramètres physico-chimiques dans une exsurgence du Liban. Vie Milieu 32: 105–109.Google Scholar
  4. Alouf, N. J., 1983. Contribution à la connaissance des cours d'eau du Liban: la zonation biologique du Nahr Qab Ilias. Ann. Limnol. 19: 121–127.Google Scholar
  5. Banarescu, P. M., T. T. Nalbant & M. Goren, 1982. The Neomacheline Loaches from Israel (Pisces: Cobitidae: Neomachelinae). Israel J. Zool. 31: 1–25.Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Tuvia, A., 1981. Man-induced changes in the freshwater fauna of Israel. Fish Mgmt 12: 130–148.Google Scholar
  7. Botosaneanu, L., 1974. Quatre nouvelles éspèces Palestiniennes des Trichoptères (Insecta, Trichoptera). Israel J. Ent. 9: 159–174.Google Scholar
  8. Botosaneanu, L., 1979. Quinze années de recherches sur la zonation des cours d'eau: 1963–1978. Revue commentée Biblphie & Obsn personn. Bijdr. Dierk. 49: 109–134.Google Scholar
  9. Botosaneanu, L. & A. Gasith, 1971. Contributions taxonomiques et écologiques à la connaissance des Trichoptères (Insecta) d'Israel. Israel J. Zool. 20: 89–129.Google Scholar
  10. Bromley, H. J., 1974. Morpho-karyological types of Dugesia (Turbellaria, Tricladida) in Israel and their distribution patterns. Zool. Scr. 3: 239–242.Google Scholar
  11. Bromley, H. J., 1982. The morphology, karyology and reproduction of a new species of Dendrocoelum Orsted (Turbellaria, Tricladida) from the headwaters of the River Jordan. Israel J. Zool. 31: 119–136.Google Scholar
  12. Cummins, K. W., 1974. Structure and function of stream ecosystems. BioScience 24: 631–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dautzenberg, Ph., 1984. Liste des mollusques terrestres et fluviales recoueillies par M. Th. Barrois en Palestine et en Syrie. Rev. Biol. N. France 6: 329–354.Google Scholar
  14. Degani, G., 1981. Morphological and biochemical differences between the Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia; Urodela) populations in Israel. Israel J. Zool. 28: 54–55.Google Scholar
  15. Demoulin, G., 1973. Contribution à l'étude des ephéméroptères d'Israel. Introduction et I. Heptageniidae. Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belge (Ent.) 49: 1–19.Google Scholar
  16. Dia, A., 1983. Recherches sur l'écologie et la biogéographie des cours d'eau du Liban Meridional. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Aix-Marseille III, 301 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Dia, A. & L. Botosaneanu, 1983. Six éspèces nouvelles de Trichoptères du Liban (Insecta: Trichoptera). Bull. Zool. Mus. Nederl. 9: 125–135.Google Scholar
  18. Dumont, H. J., 1973. The genus Pseudagrion Selys in Israel and Egypt, with a key to the regional species (Insecta: Odonata). Israel J. Zool. 22: 169–195.Google Scholar
  19. Dumont, H. J. Odonata. Fauna Palaestina, Insecta V, Israel Acad. of Sci., Jerusalem (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Ehrlich, A., 1983. Diatiomacea populations of River Dan. In Anonymous, Land of the Streams. Israel Nat. Reserves Auth. & Nat. Prot. Soc.: 61–73 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  21. Eren, Y. & I. Dor, 1983. Microalgae of River Dan. In Anonymous, Land of the Streams. Israel Nat. Reserves Auth. & Nat. Prot. Soc.: 53–60 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  22. Furth, D. G., 1983. Aquatic entomofauna of a Dead Sea oasis. Hydrobiologia 102: 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gasith, A., 1969. Trichoptera of Israel. M.Sc. Thesis, Tel Aviv Univ. 82 pp. (in Hebrew, with English summary).Google Scholar
  24. Gasith, A. & Al. Barash, 1971. Freshwater Gastropods from Israel. Argamon (Israel Malacol. Soc.) 2: 7–10.Google Scholar
  25. Giani, N., E. Martinez-Ansemil & Z. Moubayed, 1982. Les Oligochètes aquatiques du Liban, 2. Premier Inventaire faun. Annls Limnol. 18: 293–300.Google Scholar
  26. Gilead D. & S. Schwarz, 1978. Hydrogeology of the Jordan sources' Aquifer. Water Comm., Hydrological Service, Hydrol. Rep. 5: 1–58 (mimeo, in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  27. Goren, M., 1974. The freshwater fishes of Israel. Israel. J. Zool. 23: 67–118.Google Scholar
  28. Harrison, A. D. & J. J. Rankin, 1976. Hydrobiological studies of Eastern Lesser Antillean Islands, 2. St. Vincent: Freshwater fauna — its distribution; tropical river zonation and biogeography. Arch. Hydrobiol., Suppl. 50: 275–311.Google Scholar
  29. Herbst, G. N. & S. R. Reice, 1982. Comparative leaf litter decomposition in temporary and permanent streams in semi-arid regions of Israel. J. Arid Envir. 5: 305–318.Google Scholar
  30. Herbst, G. N. & Ch. Dimentman, 1982. Distribution patterns and habitat characteristics of Amphipoda (Crustacea) in the inland waters of Israel and Sinai. Hydrobiologia 98: 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herbst, G. N. & H. J. Bromley, 1984. Relationships between habitat stability, ionic composition and the distribution of aquatic invertebrates of Israel. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 495–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herbst, G. N. & H. K. Mienis, 1985. Aquatic invertebrate distribution in Nahal Tanninim, Israel. Israel J. Zool. 33: 51–62.Google Scholar
  33. Heyman, R., M. Livne & A. Rabinowitz, 1983. Riparian vegetation, higher plants (Cormophyta) on the banks of River Dan and its braids. In Anonymous, Land of the Streams. Israel Nat. Reserves Auth. & Nat. Prot. Soc.: 78–94 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  34. Illies, J., 1961. Versuch einer allgemeinen biozönotischen Gliederung der Flussgewasser. Int. Revue. ges. Hydrobiol. 46: 205–213.Google Scholar
  35. Illies, J. & L. Botosaneanu, 1963. Problèmes et methodes de la classification et de la zonation écologique des eaux courantes considerées surtout du point de vue faunistique. Mitt. int. Ver. Limnol. 12, 57 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Jäch, M., 1982. Die Gattung Hydraena in Israel (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae). Zeitschr. Oster. Arbeitsgem. Ent. 34: 59–60.Google Scholar
  37. Karaman, G. S. & S. Pinkster, 1977. Freshwater Gammarus species from Europe, North Africa and adjacent regions of Asia (Crustacea, Amphipoda), 1. Gammarus pulex-group and related species. Bijdr. Dierk. 47: 1–97.Google Scholar
  38. Karmon, Y., 1956. The Northern Hulah Valley. Its Natural and Cultural Landscape. Magnes Press, Jerusalem, 108 pp. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  39. Kinzelbach, R., 1980. Hydrobiologie am Orontes. Nat. Mus. 110: 9–18.Google Scholar
  40. Kuiper, J. G. J., 1981. The distribution of Pisidium tenuilineatum Stell[?] and Pisidium annandalei Prashad in the Mediterranean area. Basteria 45: 79–84.Google Scholar
  41. Lattin, G., de, 1967. Grundriss der Zoogeographie. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart: 602 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Lindner, E. & A. Freidberg, 1978. New records of Stratiomyidae (Diptera) from the Near East, with a key to the species of Israel, Sinai and the Golan. Israel J. Ent. 12: 51–64.Google Scholar
  43. Linnavuori, R., 1960. Hemiptera of Israel, 1. Ann. Zool. Soc. Vanamo 22: 1–71.Google Scholar
  44. Lipkin, Y., 1983. River Dan Survey: Aquatic and submerged vegetation of the river. In Anonymous, Land of the Streams. Israel Nat. Reserves Auth. & Nat. Prot. Soc.: 74–77 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  45. Mendelssohn, H. & H. Steinitz, 1944. Contributions to the ecological Zoogeography of the Amphibians in Palestine. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istanbul B 9: 289–298.Google Scholar
  46. Mienis, H. K., 1975. Molluscs collected during the field trip of the I.M.S. to Tel Dan, Banyas and the Hermon. Levantina 14: 157–160.Google Scholar
  47. Malicky, H., 1975. Bericht über das Forschungsprojekt Ökologische Untersuchungen an eumediterranen Fliessgewässern. Arbeit 859, Biol. Stat. Lunz, Austria, 23 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Moubayed, Z. & H. Laville, 1983. Les Chironomides (Diptera) du Liban, 1. Premier inventaire faunistique. Ann. Limnol. 19: 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ortal, R. & F. D. Por, 1978. Effect of hydrological changes on aquatic communities in the Lower River Jordan. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 20: 1543–1551.Google Scholar
  50. Pascar-Gluzman, C. & Ch. Dimentman, 1984. Distribution and habitat characteristics of Naididae and Tubificidae in the Inland Waters of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula. Hydrobiologia 115: 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Picard, L., 1943. Structure and Evolution of Palestine, with comparative notes on neighbouring countries. Jerusalem, Heb. Univ., Geol. Dept., Bull., 4: 1–187.Google Scholar
  52. Picard, L., 1952. The Pleistocene Peat of Lake Hula. Bull. Res. Counc. Israel B G2: 147–156.Google Scholar
  53. Por, F. D., 1975. An outline of the zoogeography of the Levant. Zool. Scr. 4: 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Por, F. D., 1981. Streams in the Desert — What do they have in common? In H. Shuval (ed.), Developments in Arid Zone Ecology and Environmental Quality. Balaban ISS, Philad.: 409 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  55. Por, F. D., 1983. The Freshwater Canthocamptidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) of Israel and Sinai. Israel J. Zool. 32: 113–134.Google Scholar
  56. Por, F. D., 1984. An Outline of the Distribution Patterns of the Freshwater Copepoda of Israel and Surroundings. Hydrobiologia 113: 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Por, F. D. & R. Ortal. River Jordan — the Survival and Future of a very special River. Env. Conserv. (in press)Google Scholar
  58. Saliternik, Z. & M. Javor, 1953. Survey of the Water Sources for Anti-malaria Treatment. Ministry of Health Israel, 104 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Samocha, M., 1972. Ephemeroptera of Israel. M.Sc. Thesis, Tel Aviv Univ. 111 pp. (in Hebrew with English summary).Google Scholar
  60. Schutt, H., 1982. Die Molluskenfauna der Susswässer im Einzugsgebiet des Orontes, unter Berücksichtigung benachbarter Flussysteme. Arch. Molluskenkunde 113: 17–91, 225–228.Google Scholar
  61. Zwick, P., 1972. Protonemura zernyi Aubert (Insecta, Plecoptera). An addition to the Fauna of Israel. Israel J. Zool. 21: 49–51.Google Scholar
  62. Zwick, P., 1984. Marthamea beraudi (Navas) and its European Congeners (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Ann. Limnol. 20: 129–139.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. D. Por
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. J. Bromley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ch. Dimentman
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. N. Herbst
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Ortal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalem
  2. 2.Israel Nature Reserves AuthorityJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations