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Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: A New Disruptive Force in Orthopaedics

  • Murali PoduvalEmail author
  • Avik Ghose
  • Sanjeev Manchanda
  • Vaibhav Bagaria
  • Aniruddha Sinha
Narrative Review

Abstract

Orthopaedics as a surgical discipline requires a combination of good clinical acumen, good surgical skill, a reasonable physical strength and most of all, good understanding of technology. The last few decades have seen rapid adoption of new technologies into orthopaedic practice, power tools, new implants, CAD–CAM design, 3-D printing, additive manufacturing just to name a few. The new disruption in orthopaedics in the current time and era is undoubtedly the advent of artificial intelligence and robotics. As these technologies take root and innovative applications continue to be incorporated into the main-stream orthopedics, as we know it today, it is imperative to look at and understand the basics of artificial intelligence and what work is being done in the field today. This article takes the form of a loosely structured narrative review and will introduce the reader to key concepts in the field of artificial intelligence as well as some of the directions in application of the same in orthopaedics. Some of the recent work has been summarised and we present our viewpoint at the conclusion as to why we must consider artificial intelligence as a disrupting positive influence on orthopaedic surgery.

Keywords

Artificial intelligence Orthopaedic surgery Machine learning 

Abbreviations

AI

Artificial intelligence

DL

Deep learning

ML

Machine learning

CNN

Convolutional neural network

ANN

Artificial neural network

RNN

Recurrent neural network

Notes

Author contributions

Concepts: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Design: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Definition of intellectual content: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Literature search: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Clinical studies: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Experimental studies: not available. Data acquisition: none. Data analysis: none. Statistical analysis: not available. Manuscript preparation: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Manuscript editing: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Manuscript review: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS. Guarantor: MP, AG, SM, VB, and AS.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests in relation to the content published here which is entirely educative and informative.

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Copyright information

© Indian Orthopaedics Association 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murali Poduval
    • 1
    Email author
  • Avik Ghose
    • 2
  • Sanjeev Manchanda
    • 3
  • Vaibhav Bagaria
    • 4
  • Aniruddha Sinha
    • 2
  1. 1.Tata Consultancy ServicesMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.TCS Research and InnovationTata Consultancy ServicesKolkataIndia
  3. 3.TCS Research and InnovationTata Consultancy ServicesMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Reliance HN Foundation Hospital MumbaiMumbaiIndia

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